A Test of Dovidio and Gaertner's Integrated Model of Racism

By Nail, Paul R.; Harton, Helen C. et al. | North American Journal of Psychology, March 2008 | Go to article overview

A Test of Dovidio and Gaertner's Integrated Model of Racism


Nail, Paul R., Harton, Helen C., Barnes, Anna, North American Journal of Psychology


Politically liberal and conservative White Americans were asked to evaluate a legal case in which a police officer was acquitted of assault charges against a motorist in state court but then retried in federal court. When the initiator of the assault was unspecified, liberals perceived a violation of double jeopardy significantly more for a Black officer-White motorist pair than vice versa. When the officer was identified as the initiator, however, double jeopardy ratings decreased significantly only for the Black officer. These results support the hypothesis that liberals, as aversive racists, will often discriminate in favor of Blacks except when discrimination against Blacks can be justified as non-racist. Unexpectedly, conservatives showed no indication of racial bias under any of the conditions.

**********

Contemporary theories of racism propose that race-based prejudice in North America has not decreased as much in recent years as some surveys would seem to indicate (see Dovidio & Gaertner, 1998, 2005). Instead, the expressions of racism are simply less overt than they used to be. The theories of modern racism (McConahay, 1986) and symbolic racism (Sears, 1998; Sears & Henry, 2003) both posit that due to changing social norms against direct and overt expressions of racism many White Americans beginning in the 1960s have tended to express their racism in indirect, disguised, or symbolic ways. For example, such individuals might argue that they oppose social policies like affirmative action not because they are prejudiced as individuals but because it is against a proper interpretation of Civil Rights laws to use race as a factor in decisions such as hiring and university admissions. By taking such a position, modern-symbolic racists can continue to maintain or at least project a non-prejudiced self-image despite possessing negative, explicit, race-based beliefs and attitudes.

The theory of aversive racism (Dovidio & Gaertner, 1998, 2005) also proposes subtle, indirect expressions of prejudice by White Americans. However, aversive racists, unlike modern-symbolic racists, are hypothesized to have internalized some genuine egalitarian attitudes like fairness and equality and also to possess a sincere, non-prejudiced self-image. Yet, Dovidio and Gaertner still categorize such individuals as racist because research indicates that they have non-conscious negative, race-based feelings that sometimes bubble to the surface as prejudice (e.g., Dovidio, Evans, & Tyler, 1986; Dovidio & Gaertner, 1991; Son Hing, Chung-Yan, Grunfeld, Robichaud, & Zanna, 2005; Son Hing, Li, & Zanna, 2002). Thus, a non-conscious emotional conflict is hypothesized to exist in these individuals due to their need to maintain a genuinely non-prejudiced self-image while at the same time they experience involuntary, negative, race-based feelings. The label aversive racism describes this unpleasant internal conflict.

Dovidio and Gaertner's (1998, 2005) Integrated Model of Racism

Dovidio and Gaertner's (1998, 2005) integrated model suggests that the modern, symbolic, and aversive racism models all have validity but that they apply basically to different types of people. Specifically, the model links modern-symbolic racism to political conservatives and aversive racism to political liberals. The reasoning is that North American conservatives as a group still maintain many prejudiced beliefs and attitudes and have only learned that it is improper to express such beliefs in most contemporary public settings. North American liberals, in contrast, while strongly opposed to racism in both their public behaviors and private beliefs, still maintain negative but largely unconscious feelings/beliefs based on race.

The integrated model sometimes predicts different reactions from conservatives and liberals in specific inter-racial settings. For example, White North American conservatives should show bias against Blacks relative to Whites anytime they are not aware that their race-related behavior is under surveillance (e. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Test of Dovidio and Gaertner's Integrated Model of Racism
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.