Depression and Repeat Pregnancy in Teen Mothers

By Mahoney, Diana | Clinical Psychiatry News, April 2008 | Go to article overview

Depression and Repeat Pregnancy in Teen Mothers


Mahoney, Diana, Clinical Psychiatry News


Depression in adolescent mothers is linked to an increased risk of rapid subsequent pregnancy, and these findings should come as no surprise.

In a secondary analysis of data drawn from two consecutive longitudinal risk reduction interventions, Dr. Beth Barnet and her colleagues in the department of family and community medicine at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, discovered that depressive symptoms were associated with a 44% increase in risk of subsequent pregnancy among 269 predominantly African American and low income teens.

The study included 297 pregnant adolescents aged 12-18 who received prenatal care at one of five community-based prenatal sites. At enrollment, the teens underwent a baseline structured interview and were randomly assigned to a subsequent pregnancy prevention intervention or to a usual-care control. Research staff administered structured follow-up questionnaires at 1 and 2 years post partum.

Of the 269 teens who completed at least one of the follow-up questionnaires, 46% had depressive symptoms at baseline, the authors reported in the March issue of the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. Of the 245 teens who completed 2 years of follow-up, 120 experienced a subsequent pregnancy within 2 years of childbirth. Of the 24 who were followed for only 1 year, 9 had a subsequent pregnancy during that time, they wrote (Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2008;162:246-52).

"The hazard ratio of subsequent pregnancy was significantly greater among the 112 teens with baseline depressive symptoms," the authors wrote, noting that the increased risk remained significant even after adjustment for possible confounders, including age, education, Medicaid status, exposure to violence, substance use, and relationship with the baby's father.

This study is the first to demonstrate with longitudinal data that depressive symptoms precede subsequent pregnancy in adolescent mothers and might be a determinant of this. However, in context of the following data on depression and adolescent mothers, the results could have been predicted:

* Depression is a well-known nonsexual antecedent of teen pregnancy. In a recent national study using longitudinal data from more than 4,000 middle school and high school students, depressive symptoms in boys and girls were predictive of subsequent sexual risk behavior, including condom nonuse at last sex, birth control nonuse at last sex, and multiple sexual partners (Pediatrics July 2006;118:189-200).

* Depression is common among adolescents. According to the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of more than 13,000 students, 28% of U.S. high school students reported severe depressive feelings (MMWR 2002;51[SS04]:1-64). In a 2005 report of the results from the Office of Applied Studies' National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the lifetime prevalence of depression among adolescents was estimated to be 14% (http://www.oas.samh-sa.gov/p0000016.htm#2k4).

* Rates of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers are significantly higher than those seen in adult mothers. According to the results of a recent integrative review of the literature on postpartum depression in adolescent mothers by pediatric nurse practitioner Vanessa Reid of New London, Conn., the prevalence of postpartum depression among women of all ages is estimated to be between 20% and 28% during the immediate postpartum period, compared with rates between 53% and 56% among adolescents (J. Pediatr. Health Care 2007;21:289-98).

* Rates of postpartum depression among African American adolescents are nearly twice as high as those observed in white adolescents, according to the result of a 1998 report on the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (Am. J. Public Health 1998;88:266-70).

Without a doubt, the odds are clearly stacked against adolescent mothers and, by default, their offspring. Multiple studies examining the impact of maternal depressive symptoms on offspring have shown that depression can interfere with a mother's ability to provide emotional and psychological support and attachment, as well as proper and adequate nutrition and physical care, for her infant, according to Ms.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Depression and Repeat Pregnancy in Teen Mothers
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.