'Nobody Dodges Remington': The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39
Maguire, Carmel, The Australian Library Journal
Traces the role of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, Sydney solicitor and businessman, in free public library development in Australia. Describes how the Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries and Remington's acquaintance with John Wallace Metcalfe of the Public Library of New South Wales led to the birth of the Free Library Movement in 1935, and shows how the combination of legal expertise, public relations skills, technical knowledge and passion led to the passing of the New South Wales Library Act in 1939. Outlines the involvement of other key figures, including W. H. Ifould, Principal Librarian of the Public Library of New South Wales, George Brain, an accountant and later politician, Ministers of the Crown, High Court judges and politicians. Shows how Remington's legendary powers of persuasion also won over the media, and organisations such as the Australian Council for Educational Research and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, leading one newspaper columnist to conclude that 'nobody dodges Remington'.
The birth of the Free Library Movement (FLM) took place at a public meeting in the Chatswood-Willoughby School of Arts, Victoria Avenue, Chatswood, on Sydney's North Shore, on 26 June 1935. The meeting was opened and chaired by G. W. Brain, President of the Middle Harbour Progress Association. Brain saw through the resolution which brought the FLM into existence as well as the election of provisional office bearers, including himself as Honorary Secretary. He then called upon W. H. Ifould, Principal Librarian of the Public Library of New South Wales (PLNSVV) who, according to the minutes of the meeting, declared himself 'very pleased ... to be present at, and to address such a large enthusiastic and representative body of citizens of Chatswood'. (1) Ifould's address reveals that he had already thought about creation of a system of free public libraries in New South Wales.
Brain's initiation and Ifould's support were important, but the FLM's real father, mother and midwife was Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, who was at the birth as a representative of the Constitutional Association of NSW. But conception of his passion for public libraries was much more spontaneous and fortuitous than a public meeting.
Remington was a Sydney solicitor, by the mid 1930s well established in a commercial law practice in O'Connell Street in the City. He inherited family money, was educated at private schools and was admitted as a solicitor in the Supreme Court of NSW in 1923, after completing articles with the law firm Allen, Allen and Hemsley. By 1935 his practice was successful, he was happily married, was leading an active social life with lots of friends and was noted for the elegance of his clothes and his charm of manner:
But Remington also pursued more serious social activities. Much later in his life he recalled that 'at this stage in my life I was very open and sensitive to ideas from wherever they came'. (2) He suggested that some of his inspiration for active participation in public life arose, on his first visit to the United States in 1927, when he read the inscription on the Confederate Memoria! at Arlington National Cemetery in Washington:
Not for fame or reward Not for place or for rank Not lured by ambition Or goaded by necessity But in simple obedience to duty as they understood it These men suffered all Sacrificed all Dared all and died. (3)
The newly formed Australian Institute of Political Science (AIPS) was one of his interests and in late January 1935 he went to Melbourne with Norman Cowper, one of the Institute's founders, to lobby Frank Tate, chairman of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). They were seeking Tate's good offices to obtain support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, which had funded the ACER and with whose officers Tate enjoyed excellent relations. When Cowper remarked facetiously that Remington concerned himself with many things, most of which did not concern him, Tate seized the moment and handed Remington a copy of the newly published Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries, suggesting the report as 'something you can get your teeth into'. (4)
Remington went on to the AIPS meeting at Healesville that weekend, where he read the work of the Carnegie surveyors, Ralph Munn, librarian of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, and Ernest Pitt, principal librarian of the Public Library of Victoria. Shocked by the Report's contents, Remington resolved that something had to be done about the state of Australia's public libraries.
Remington had swallowed Tate's bait and, immediately on his return to Sydney, he had no trouble in enlisting the aid of John Metcalfe, deputy principal librarian of the PLNSW. The alliance of this in many aspects odd couple is crucial to the FLM story.
Notices of a second public meeting of the FLM, set down for the end of November 1935, were sent to 542 people and associations, and organising the meeting seems to have been largely the work of G. W. Brain. He, like Remington, had been galvanised into action by the Munn Pitt Report. The FLM was already well stocked with tall poppies. Sir John Ferguson, judge, Australian bibliographer and trustee of the PLNSW, addressed the second public meeting, as did Ifould. Mr Justice Evatt, High Court judge and also a trustee of the PLNSW, proposed the vote of thanks. At the first annual general meeting on 27 March 1936, twenty Councillors were elected, including Remington. This appointment to his first office in the FLM may have been recognition of his continuing interest and input, and perhaps especially of his broadcast over radio 2GB on Sunday evening 12 January 1936 under the auspices of the AIPS. Remington told listeners that 'the Free Library Movement is an opportunity for each of you to do something which will be of benefit, not only to this generation, but for the generations that are to come'. (5)
Remington was elected Chair of the Executive Committee at the meeting of 9 June 1936 and the FLM gathered new momentum from this point. The FLM had been well launched from the outset: the Constitution, for example, was planned at the inaugural meeting and quickly went through three editions between 1935 and 1938. (6) The objects were clear from the beginning: to advocate and work for the establishment of free libraries, and to create and foster public opinion on the value of free libraries.
Right from the start Ifould was unofficially enlisted as a source of technical knowledge and Metcalfe soon followed. Both were totally engaged in the struggle to achieve public library services for NSW. Brain was meticulous in his financial management, as befitted his calling as an accountant, and he was at the same time thoroughly committed to the free library ideal. I am prepared to argue, however, that Remington contributed more to the FLM by way of his incredible energy and determination, his confidence in himself, his multitude of contacts, his flair for publicity and public relations, and his refusal to confine his sphere of operations to the state of NSW. To all this he added a willingness to take risks which would not have been possible for anyone in public employ, and probably likewise impossible for anyone in someone else's employ.
In pursuing this argument I abandon almost totally a chronological approach and seek to convey the spirit of the time and the awareness of public libraries created by the FLM which amounted, at least in NSW, almost to tumult. For Remington leapt boldly into a grand campaign of publicity and public relations, in which Members of Parliament, captains of industry, trade union leaders, leaders of community organisations, and the people in general were targets. No opportunity to speak at meetings was neglected, and friends were dragooned. 'White knights' were recruited, some of them knights of the realm.
The media were courted with assiduous skill and courtesy. A radio campaign was under way by January 1936, spearheaded by Remington's 'policy speech', referred to earlier. He wrote the scripts--some with Metcalfe's input--and distributed them to the speakers, some of whom were fellow solicitors. But the cast was varied. Mrs Hubert Fairfax and Mrs John Metcalfe both spoke at meetings and on radio--their own first names, Ruth and Thelma respectively, seem not to have been used. Mrs Fairfax's speech to the conference of the Country Women's Association in March 1937 was broadcast over radio station 2GZ. In one of his detailed reports to the Carnegie Corporation, Remington told John M. Russell: 'J. W. Metcalfe and I listened in here and it went over very well'. (7) The several hundred reprints of the full address which were distributed far and wide also 'went over very well', and an extract was printed by the Queensland branch of the FLM.
Never one to countenance watering-down of any of the FLM messages, Remington told Tate on 12 July 1937 that 'We printed 5000 copies and could give away some hundreds of copies'. He also added '1 suggest the full address as printed by us is probably more effective than the extract printed by the Queensland Movement'. (8) It is a pity that no audio recordings of his or any of the other FLM broadcasts seem to have survived. It would be interesting to know how well the scripted duologues went over. They were written by Remington and 'acted' by himself and others. The loss of these and other early broadcasts merits a black mark on our cultural bottom line. Surely there is room here for funding of a research project in which a comprehensive search can be made in radio archives and people's bottom drawers for the sounds of Australia's lost voices.
Remington was never deterred by eccentrics--witness his kindness to Miss Victoria M. Maddox of the Theosophical Society, which paid off in free air time on radio station 2GB. Her frequent letters to Remington were often undated and sometimes verged on hysteria, but her belief in the free library ideal was without question. In an undated letter which Remington received on 10 February 1937 and replied to on the same day, Miss Maddox explained that 'everyone is prejudiced against us'. Therefore her offer, not yet sanctioned by her executive, of the Savoy Theatre for a FLM Rally in 1937 had to appear to have come after a request from Remington. (9) Neither unpopularity nor a bushfire, which at that time damaged 'The Manor', the Society's home-office in Mosman, deterred Miss Maddox. She was fiercely determined to ensure that what was left of the Society's power over radio 2GB and the Savoy Theatre was put at Remington's disposal. (10)
The FLM was fuelled by extraordinary energy, a lot of which was Remington's. The sheer volume of correspondence dealt with was astounding. Brain rarely and Remington never tried to stem the flow. Meticulous attention was given to planning, down to the smallest detail. Examples were the aide-memoires which were prepared for meeting chairmen and the carefully devised strategies for formation of branches. The time commitment was enormous: travel to country areas, for example, was by train, which may have been as comfortable as rail journeys in NSW are today but it was (and is) time-consuming. There were also speeches to be prepared and then presented at public meetings.
Remington's energy was matched by his optimism. He was undeterred by lack of money, which was never abundant. He refused to be put off after sending about fifty begging letters to the banks and other inhabitants of the big end of town in 1936 and receiving a very poor response. He was also very successful in recruiting major public figures, receiving great courtesy from them, even from former Prime Minister W. M. (Billy) Hughes, then a Vice President of the FLM and federal Minister for Health and Repatriation, whose reputation for irascibility is now legend. In agreeing to speak at the FLM Council meeting on 19 October 1936, Billy replied: 'Let me know what you would like me to do or say--I am very much at your disposal'. (11)
Remington was also remarkable for his lack of partisanship. His acceptance of different shades of opinion--philosophical, political, religious and social--was unusual for his time and remains so among people in public life in our time. His ability to be inspired equalled his ability to inspire, and extended to holders of unpopular beliefs. The Theosophists and in particular Miss Maddox and her fellow residents at 'The Manor' were but one instance. Nor was he rattled by disapproval of his friendship with Dr Lloyd Ross and other trade union officials. The flavour of the conflict between capital and labour at the time rises from a letter from J. J. Myles, head of the railwaymen's union in Cootamundra, in which he sends Remington the requested list of likely local FLM susceptibles. If Remington were to contact them, Myles warns, 'do not mention my name as I am looked upon as one who holds radical views'. (12) The dread of union bosses is not new in Australian politics. J. J. Pullen, President of the NSW Trades and Labour Council, was elected a Vice President of the FLM.
There was even an ecumenical effect. The inauguration of the Queensland branch marked the only occasion, at least to that point, on which the Anglican and Catholic Archbishops of Brisbane had appeared on the same platform. Two separate photographs in the Courier mail record the occasion. In the issue of 22 April 1937, there is a photograph of the people on the dais at the inaugural meeting of the Queensland Branch of the FLM. Remington is standing and speaking, with Anglican Archbishop Wand and Dr W. N. Robertson, Vice Chancellor of the University of
Queensland, with Brisbane Lord Mayor, Alderman Clem Jones on his right. On Remington's left is Sir Donald Cameron, Member of the House of Representatives, who became Queensland FLM President. The omission of Catholic Archbishop Duhig from this photograph was presumably a shortcoming of the camera lens rather than of the newspaper's ecumenism, since there was another photograph of the same occasion published in the Courier mail six days later. Here Cameron is speaking and Archbishop Duhig is seated on his right. (13)
The FLM assembled a great cast. Remington and Ifould's contacts were multitudinous and Remington's in particular were mercilessly worked and unerringly thanked. Contacts were developed with trade union representatives and employer organisations alike, with school inspectors and school teachers, golfing acquaintances, strangers on a train--anyone who showed the slightest susceptibility for conversion to the cause. The good offices of bank managers were used in the distribution of FLM leaflets throughout the State in branches of the Rural Bank, Bank of NSW, and the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney. Even Remington's sister and her husband, who lived on a property near Gundagai, were canvassed, though there is no record of any reply from them, enthusiastic or otherwise. (14)
The FLM's publicity and public relations were of a high standard: Remington's grasp of the necessary skills was intuitive. It is not surprising that he went on to found one of the early public relations businesses in Sydney. He insisted on keeping fully informed not only Tate and K. S. Cunningham at the ACER but also Dr Keppel and John M. Russell at the Carnegie Corporation. The length and detail of his reports to the latter surprised the ACER team and at times irked Ifould.
There was no dispute about the importance of publications to an organisation closely associated with the top management of the PLNSW, who no doubt shared Remington's concern for the quality of the text and the design of FLM publications. Insistence on their wide distribution was part of Remington's zeal for the cause. No promising author was let escape without a manuscript. Sir Percy Meadon and Dr I. L. Kandel, visiting 'firemen', imported from Britain and the United States respectively for the New Education Fellowship meetings in 1937 (and present at the inaugural meeting of the Australian Institute of Librarians) were recruited by Remington as FLM authors. (15) Hartley Grattan was an easy victim. He was a Carnegie scholar here to write about Australia and found in Remington a kindred spirit and a generous host. His pamphlet Libraries: a necessity for democracy, published by the FLM in 1938, is a powerful and well-written statement. (16) The same may be said for the many FLM writings prepared either separately or together by Remington and Metcalfe.
'Media savvy' was a term yet to be invented in the 1930s but Remington certainly had it: witness the three volumes of FLM press clippings in the Mitchell Library. (17) Remington almost always used the phrase 'in your valued newspaper' in asking for coverage of an event or reprinting of an FLM publication. The results are there to see, with coverage ranging from the Sydney morning herald to the Tweed daily in northern NSW, and from the Melbourne Age to the Tumbarumba times from the south of NSW.
The Norman Lindsay cartoon from the Bulletin in August 1938 gives a good impression of the stir which the FLM had caused. A female figure with flowing hair and ample proportions holds aloft a flaming torch with 'Literature' written on its flame, while four little devil figures are slinking away. On one can be read 'Smut', another is branded 'Lottery', another 'Astrology', and the fourth bears the stamp 'S P' on his forehead. The latter may need explanation in that the old Australian vice of illegal Starting Price bookmaking seems to have died out, not through any access of virtue but through opportunities seized by state governments to acquire substantial revenues from legalised SP gambling. The caption reads 'The light that never fails', and beneath is '"Australians look down on the people of the South American Republics but their libraries put ours to shame. A country without free libraries is a backward country"--Speaker at the Free Library Movement's annual meeting'. (18)
The FLM's success in the capture of government interest is embodied in the Libraries Advisory Committee (LAC). In February 1937 Remington, with Ifould and Metcalfe present, met D. H. Drummond, the NSW Minister for Education, and told him of the FLM's hopes of a Library Act and training for librarians. Drummond responded by announcing, at the FLM's second annual general meeting in March 1937, that:
A committee was to be appointed to advise the Government upon the drafting of a Bill to provide machinery for establishment of free libraries throughout the state and informed the Meeting that the Free Library Movement would be represented on this committee. He congratulated the Free Library Movement on the valuable service it performed in promoting a recognition by the people of the need for libraries. (19)
Remington, Ifould, and Metcalfe would be members, with an Assistant Under Secretary from the Department of Education. Remington's excitement and his appreciation of Metcalfe's contribution to the campaign so far are obvious from his report on its establishment to Russell at the Carnegie Corporation:
I hope we will get to work immediately. Mr J. W. Metcalfe will accept the position of Secretary as well as acting as a member of the Committee. I do not know that I have told you previously, but Mr Metcalfe has been the brains of this Movement from start to finish. He has prepared all our statements and literature and has been our guide, philosopher and friend, without whose aid the Free Library Movement should never have functioned so effectively. He on his part says that without the help and inspiration of your Corporation he could not have assisted us in the way he has been able to do. (20)
The story of the Libraries Advisory Committee is told in David Jones' splendid biography of Ifould, which should certainly be on the publishing programme for the Mitchell centenary. (21)
Drafting the library bill accelerated when more expertise in that specialised corner of the law was imported to the Committee. Remington continued to whip up interest in the report and encouraged lobbying for its release, even in October 1938 before it had reached the Minister, to Drummond's wry amusement. In answer to Remington's plea to him that the Government announce its library policy as soon as possible, Drummond remarked: 'In view of the fact that I am still awaiting the Library Committee's report it does seem a little superfluous'. (22) But by mid November the LAC Report had still not been released and Remington was on the warpath. He enjoined one of his trusty allies, school inspector A. J. Dowd to 'Keep the campaign going until the Government says something'. (23) In December the fight was taken to the NSW Premier, Bertram Stevens, who agreed to meet a deputation, and the Report was released that month.
There was no rest for Remington. As he wrote to Tate, 'Immediately the Report was issued I circularised every Town and Shire Council in the State asking them to inform the Minister immediately how many copies of the Report they required.' He added, 'I cannot take holidays. I think it is nearly eight years since I have had a break'. (24) He also ensured that demand for the Report was stimulated in States other than NSW.
After all his effort, as he euphemised in a letter to Minister Drummond in October 1939, he was 'somewhat dismayed' that the Government did not intend to introduce the Library Bill that year. (25) The news had been conveyed to Remington by Ifould, the Minister's close friend and golfing companion, with only three or four days to go before Parliament was due to rise.
According to his own account on one of the recordings in the Mitchell Library, Remington's rage reached cyclonic proportions. He burst in upon the Premier, Alexander Mair, who had only been in office since August that year. Mair told him that Drummond was adamant that the Library Bill should not go to Cabinet, a necessary preliminary before its introduction for debate in the Parliament. Mair claimed that not only was Drummond opposed, but also the Australian Labor Party, the New Staters, and the Taxpayers Association. At this point in the encounter, Mair remarked 'You seem to be extremely upset. Do you enjoy good health?' Remington recalled that he replied: 'I did up to this morning. I don't like my friends double-crossing me'.
Remington went first to William (Billy) McKell, then Leader of the Opposition Labor Party (and later to become NSW Premier and still later Governor General of Australia). McKell assured him that 'The Labor Party has never opposed an educational bill yet and is not likely to start now particularly with libraries'. The head of the Taxpayers Association told Remington that he was asking a good deal in seeking their support for a bill which would bring extra taxes, but his own and the community's support for libraries generally persuaded him. And he put his support in writing to the Premier. Next Remington had recourse to the editors of the Sydney morning herald and the Sydney Daily telegraph, and their editorial support was promised. Remington then bearded the Premier once more and, despite Remington's second loss of temper, Mair telephoned Drummond for his agreement, and told Remington that the Library Bill would be restored to the Cabinet agenda.
A few hours later, the Parliamentary Draughtsman telephoned Remington to say that he had a considerable amount of work to do before he could issue a certificate to enable the first reading of the Bill in Parliament. He had therefore concluded that the Bill would not be presented in that session. He was wrong and so was the Parliament's notion that it should be sent to Committee for detailed scrutiny after the first reading, before being sent on to the Legislative Council. Remington persuaded his friend, Sir Henry Manning, leader of the Government in the upper house, to have Standing Orders suspended and the Bill dealt with as a matter of urgency. Back to the lower house, Remington also persuaded the Government Whip to treat the Bill as a matter of urgency. Ultimately, as Remington reports on the tape recording, 'the Bill went through the Lower and Upper House[s] and became an Act within a day or two of its passing through both Houses of Parliament'. (26)
The confinement which brought the NSW Library Act into the world in 1939 had been difficult. (27) In the circumstances, with war imminent and uncertainty everywhere, Remington's midwifery verges on the miraculous. Smith's weekly's claim in 1937 that 'nobody dodges Remington' had remained true to the end. Under the heading 'An organiser of intellect: Sydney lawyer's quaint hobby' there is a small line drawing of Remington, and a feature article, reading in part: 'Anyone else who applied such intellectual pressure to his hobbies would be rather overwhelming to meet casually, in cold blood. But that he somehow contrives never to be. The secret of his salvation is that twinkle in his eye. Only the elect have it.' (28)
Remington himself provided an epigraph for his work with the FLM: 'They were interesting and stimulating days and you had quite a lot of fun'. (29)
(1) Free Library Movement, 'Minutes of the inaugural meeting of Delegates from the Public and quasi-public bodies functioning within the Municipality of Willoughby convened by the Middle Harbour Progress Association and held at the School of Arts, Victoria Avenue, Chatswood, on Wednesday 26th June, 1935, commencing at 8 pm', State Library of New South Wales records (hereafter SLNSW records), FLM correspondence from 1936 to 1938 [3rd blue box with 'FLM' on spine label, pencil '1' beneath 'Minutes--General Meeting' pasted on front cover].
(2) G.C. Remington, taped interview recorded 18 July 1964, Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, CY MLOH $46/5. Acknowledgement must be made of the heroic efforts of Rosie Block at the State Library of NSW in having the Remington tapes transferred from reel to reel to audiotape.
(3) These words inscribed on the Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, Washington DC, are by Dr Randolph Harrison McKim. www:arlingtoncemetery.org/visitor_ information/Confederate_Memorial.html [accessed 13 October 2007].
(4) Ralph Munn and Ernest R. Pitt, Australian libraries: a survey of conditions and suggestions for their improvement, Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research, 1935.
(5) G.C. Remington, 'Australian Institute of Political Science: broadcast talk through 2GB by G.C. Remington on the Free Library Movement, at 7.20 p.m. on Sunday 12th January, 1936', SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 1B/Broadcasts, Copies/ Broadcasts given by Mr G. C. Remington, p. 2.
(6) Constitution of the Free Library Movement, with an introductory note [by G. W. Brain], Sydney, FLM, 1935; Constitution of the Free Library Movement, with an introductory note and a model Branch constitution, 2nd ed., Sydney, FLM, 1936; 3rd ed., Sydney, FLM, 1938.
(7) Remington to J. Russell, Carnegie Corporation of New York, 19 March 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 5C/Carnegie Corporation of New York.
(8) Remington to Frank Tate, Australian Council for Educational Research, 12 July 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, No. 1 file, letters from A.1 to E.3/2A/ Miscellaneous.
(9) Victoria M. Maddox to Remington, received 10 February 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 2M/Miscellaneous.
(10) Victoria M. Maddox to Remington, 15 March 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 2M/Miscellaneous.
(11) W. M. Hughes to G. W. Brain, 10 October 1936, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 2H/Miscellaneous.
(12) J.J. Myles to Remington, 18 January 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 4C/Cootamundra correspondence.
(13) Courier mail, 22 April 1937; Courier mail, 28 April 1937.
(14) Remington to Mrs Bruce Minter, Carinya, Gundagai, 23 December 1936, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 'M' 1M/Letters etc.
(15) Sir Percy Meadon, Public libraries in England and Wales, Sydney, FLM, 1937; I. L. Kandel, The Free Library Movement and its implications, Sydney, FLM, 1937.
(16) C. Hartley Grattan, Libraries: a necessity for democracy, Sydney, FLM, 1938.
(17) Free Library Movement press cuttings, Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, F/815 SET
(18) Norman Lindsay, 'The light that never fails', Bulletin, 31 August 1938.
(19) Minutes of 2nd Annual General Meeting, 18 March 1937, SLNSW records, Free Library Movement, box 1, Minutes of Council.
(20) Remington to John Russell, 9 June 1937, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 5C/Carnegie Corporation of New York.
(21) David J. Jones, 'William Herbert Ifould and the development of library services in New South Wales, 1912-1942', PhD thesis, University of NSW, 1993.
(22) D. H. Drummond to Remington, 20 October 1938, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 3D/Dept of Education Correspondence & Literature.
(23) Remington to A.J. Dowd, 18 November 1938, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, 5M./Misc country correspondence/NSW.
(24) Remington to Frank Tate, 22 December 1938, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938 inclusive, no. 1 file/Letters from A1 to E3, 2A/Miscellaneous.
(25) Remington to D. H. Drummond, 6 October 1939, SLNSW records, FLM Correspondence from 1936 to 1938, folder 3D.
(26) Remington, taped interview.
(27) In fact the Act was not fully proclaimed until 1943, and its financial and other provisions did not come into force until 1944.
(28) 'An organiser of intellect: Sydney lawyer's quaint hobby', Smiths weekly, 19 June 1937.
(29) Remington, taped interview.
Carmel Maguire MA FLAA taught and researched at the University of New South Wales and has recently retired from an honorary post there as professorial fellow in the School of Information Systems, Technology and Management. Her research focused on innovation in information services and on the transfer of research findings to industrial application. She is currently working on a biography of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, as a doctoral student in the School of History in the University of New South Wales. She may be contacted at email@example.com…
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Publication information: Article title: 'Nobody Dodges Remington': The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39. Contributors: Maguire, Carmel - Author. Journal title: The Australian Library Journal. Volume: 56. Issue: 3-4 Publication date: November 2007. Page number: 222+. © 2008 Australian Library and Information Association. COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale Group.
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