Sexual Risk-Taking by Muscovite Youth Attending School

By Westhoff, Wayne W.; Klein, Klaus et al. | Journal of School Health, March 1996 | Go to article overview

Sexual Risk-Taking by Muscovite Youth Attending School


Westhoff, Wayne W., Klein, Klaus, McDermott, Robert J., Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter, Holcomb, Derek R., Journal of School Health


Heterosexual intercourse will account for a projected 75% to 80% of all infections worldwide related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the year 2000.[1] This shift in rates of occurrence for AIDS and new HIV infections from the homosexual to the heterosexual population places adolescents at high risk of disease.[2] Although infrequently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, adolescents are in a high-risk situation due to their young age at first intercourse their number of partners; their high rates of other sexually transmissible infections; their experimentation with intravenous drugs; their other substance use; and their limited HIV/AIDS knowledge.[3] Primary causes of illness and death among adolescents related directly to risk behavior, a characteristic endemic to this age group.[4] In addition, adolescents who engage in health-compromising behavior, such as high-risk sexual practices, also are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behavior.[5]

According to the National Commission on AIDS,[6] HIV infection is spreading rapidly among adolescents in the United States. Although the reported number of HIV/AIDS cases among those ages 13-19 is relatively small (1,768 cases as of December 1994), the number of cases increased by 40% in a recent year.[6-8] Twenty percent of all AIDS cases occurred among those ages 20-29.[6,9,10] Given the incubation period of up to 10 years from the onset of the HIV infection to full-blown AIDS, one can infer that many HIV infections were introduced by sexual practices during adolescence.

As of mid-1994, the World Health Organization estimated that internationally, 17 million individuals were infected with HIV, and more than 985,000 AIDS cases were reported.[11] An additional 1 million cases of AIDS are expected by 1997.[12] More than half of reported cases are from the United States, but this pattern may change.

For example, the United States had a 1991 global ranking of 30th of 149 national data sets for new AIDS cases (16.84/100,000).[13] This incidence rate is far below some countries in the Caribbean basin of Latin America and Africa. The Bahamas ranked first at 90.04/100,000, Malawi ranked second at 81.28/100,000, and Uganda ranked third at 57.72/100,000, but the United States ranks above all European countries. The Federal Republic of Germany ranked 74th at 1.88/100,000, and the Russian Federation ranked 140th at 0.02/100,000. The Bahamian AIDS case rate is the highest recorded rate according to official 1991 government reports. However, Haiti has a reported rate assigned by the Pan American Health Organization in Washington, D.C., of 509.56/100,000.

The different patterns of HIV infection and annual incidence rates of AIDS in the United States and in the European community is interesting considering the relatively close personal interactions between the people through businesses and tourism. In addition, recent political reforms have brought an increase of foreigners into urban areas of eastern Europe such as St. Petersburg, Russia.[14]

The relatively low Russian rate may not last long. According to Pokrovskii, Savchonko, Suvorova et al,[15] the point prevalence rate of HIV infection among homosexuals increased from 22.4 per hundred to 47.8 per hundred during 1990-1991, characterizing a new stage of the epidemic. As of 1993, however, the number of new infections had not shown the type of dramatic increase noted in the United States among men having sex with men in the early 1980s.[14] A more likely scenario will be an increase in the epidemic occurring among the heterosexual population due to the lack of sexuality information, low condom use, and the high rate of traditional methods of birth control such as withdrawal, douche, and abortion. Visser, Pavlenko, Remmenick et al[16] noted that earlier surveys showed couples used unreliable birth control methods, but little is known about the latest trends since the recent general liberalization of the Russian society, including more open attitudes about sex.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Sexual Risk-Taking by Muscovite Youth Attending School
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.