Job Placement of Urban Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Research and Implications

By Rimmerman, Arie; Botuck, Shelly et al. | The Journal of Rehabilitation, January-March 1996 | Go to article overview

Job Placement of Urban Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Research and Implications


Rimmerman, Arie, Botuck, Shelly, Levy, Joel M., Royce, Jacqueline M., The Journal of Rehabilitation


Empirical studies on supported employment abound (Bellamy & Melia, 1991; Kiernan, McGaughey, & Schalock, 1991; Revell, Wehman, Kregel, West, & Rayfield, 1994; Rusch, 1986; Shafer, Banks, & Kregel, 1991; Simmons & Flexer, 1992), but few have specifically focused on the emerging rehabilitation needs of urban youth with developmental disabilities, examined differential needs and outcomes for various racial/ethnic groups (Atkins, 1992; Meier-Kronick, 1993; Wilson, O'Reilly, & Rusch, 1991), assessed outcomes for women compared to men (Levy et al., 1994), or considered household income or type of community (Valdes, Williamson, & Wagner, 1990a, 1990b).

Lack of research on urban young people and such factors as gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status is a gap that limits our understanding of resource allocation, access, and equity in the implementation of supported employment programs. Advocates and self-advocates have recently expressed concern with the "underachievement" of supported employment programs (Mank, 1994) and have called for modifications that will benefit persons with severe developmental disabilities (Salkever, 1994). The goals are increased social integration, career choices, and employment retention (Wehman & Kregel, 1994). Despite increasing demand, decreased federal funding and state budget crises squeeze program capacity. The provision of high quality services is threatened and services must be rationed (Salkever, 1994). The current economic and political climate promises further challenges to the employment opportunities of urban young people with developmental disabilities from differing racial/ethnic backgrounds.

The purpose of this paper is to review past research on employment for urban individuals with developmental disabilities as found in the literature, to use the relevant variables in examining job placement outcome data in a sample of urban young adults with developmental disabilities, and to discuss the implications of this analysis for rehabilitation practice, policy and future research.

Sociodemographic Factors and Employment of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

Urban joblessness is widespread in the U.S. today. Jobs now require higher levels of education and training. Job seekers in central cities find that their skills do not match the current structure of occupations. They also face lack of information and transportation barriers that make it difficult to fill jobs located in the suburbs (Skinner, 1995). Urban young people with developmental disabilities face stiff employment competition.

Supported employment programs are located in metropolitan areas (within and outside central cities) as well as non-metropolitan areas, but comparative studies are rarely reported. One study, The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) examined the employment outcomes for urban, suburban, and rural youth with developmental disabilities (Valdes et al., 1990b). The study found that urban young people with mental retardation were less likely to be employed full time or part time (16%) compared to suburban (26%) or rural youth (20%). For young people with all disabilities combined (Valdes et al., 1990a), the employment rates were higher than for young people with mental retardation, but followed the same pattern (urban youth 30%, suburban youth 46%, and rural youth 41% employed).

Emerging rehabilitation issues for African American, Latino, Native American, and Asian American groups are beginning to receive attention (Alston & McCowan, 1994a; Cheng & Tang, 1995; Dais, 1993; Marshall, Johnson, Martin, Saravanabhavan, & Bradford, 1992; Smart & Smart, 1994), but few studies have examined race/ethnicity factors and supported employment for individuals with developmental disabilities. Wilson and colleagues (1991) recently compared minority, primarily African American, enrollment in supported employment to non-minority individuals using state of Illinois data (urban/suburban residence of sample not specified). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Job Placement of Urban Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Research and Implications
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.