Human Resource Education: Does Listening to Music during Instruction Affect Jordanian Secondary Students' Academic Achievement?

By Hailat, Salah; Khasawneh, Samer et al. | International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, August 2008 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Human Resource Education: Does Listening to Music during Instruction Affect Jordanian Secondary Students' Academic Achievement?

Hailat, Salah, Khasawneh, Samer, Shargawi, Subhi, Jawarneh, Mohammad, Al-Shudaifat, Sadeq, International Journal of Applied Educational Studies

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify any differences in the academic achievement of 7th-grade students who listened to music during instruction (experimental group) and those who received traditional instruction (no music during instruction--control group). The Social Studies Test (SST) was administered pre- and post-test to measure differences between the two groups. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) on the post-test results of the SST with the pretest scores as a covariate indicated significant differences at the .05 alpha level on academic achievement for the experimental group. However, differences in academic achievement were not found based on gender or the interaction between the method of instruction and gender. A number of theoretical and practical implications for the field of study are offered.

Keywords: Music education, social studies, vocational approaches, academic achievement, human resource education, and Jordan.

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

Efforts to improve the quality of education are increasing due to globalization, educational reforms, and new approaches to teaching and learning. Schools are now held accountable by a number of stakeholders, including students, parents, legislators, and private and public organizations (Tagg, 2003). These changes have resulted in requirements to offer instruction via new teaching methods. The question of effective learning has been a key focus of educators for decades (Krigbaum, 2004). Over the years, teachers have witnessed many negative behaviors in the classroom, including students' lack of interest in and motivation to learning, limited discussions and interactions between students and teachers, and poor academic performance (Crosswhite, 2005; Emory, 2004; Smith, 1997). These behaviors have led teachers to seek corrective solutions (Gohlinghorst & Wessel, 2001).

As one explanation of these phenomena, Hoerr (2002) contended that student learning requires the use of different approaches--traditional instruction alone does not help all students maximize their potential and interest in learning. The result sometimes is negative attitudes toward education (Governal, 1997). Perhaps the most often-used instructional technique is information delivery via lectures. It has been documented that lectures are not a perfect method because they place students in the position of being passive recipients of information and reduce their opportunity to be affective learners (Hallam & Price, 2002). Furthermore, this method does not take into account the variety of students' experiences, learning styles, and motivational needs that enable the creation of an environment that will provide every student with a rich and relaxing learning experience. Thus each year, many educators make hard choices as they seek educational improvements. Whether to invest in class-size reduction, teacher training, early childhood education, textbooks, or tests depends on their estimates of the effectiveness of these approaches (Schacter, 1999). Other researchers have focused on making alterations to class climate as a way to improve academic achievement. Some advocate listening to music during instruction as one way to ensure a relaxing experience during instruction (Braynt, Mariam, Kymberriey, & Vega, 2003; Hallam & Price, 2002).

For decades, music has played an important role in daily life. As a universal language, it offers an effective approach to enhancing students' classroom learning (Huang, 2004). According to Lounsbury (1992), music may help students learn more effectively by, for example, enhancing students' self-esteem and creativity (Eady & Wilson, 2004). Using music as a teaching tool has been shown to make learning easier, faster, and more enjoyable, enabling students to be more focused and alert during lectures. It has being concluded by many researchers that music should be an essential part of education (Breeze, 2000; Brogla, 2003; Olson, 2005).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Human Resource Education: Does Listening to Music during Instruction Affect Jordanian Secondary Students' Academic Achievement?


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?