An Investigation of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs and Academic Achievement in Washington State Middle Schools

By Sink, Christopher A.; Akos, Patrick et al. | Professional School Counseling, October 2008 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

An Investigation of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs and Academic Achievement in Washington State Middle Schools


Sink, Christopher A., Akos, Patrick, Turnbull, Rebecca J., Mvududu, Nyaradzo, Professional School Counseling


Student achievement was compared between Washington State middle schools with comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) and those without. Statistically controlling for socioeconomic status, multivariate analyses of covariance revealed minimal differences between students in CSCP and non-CSCP schools. Significant score differences emerged, however, for students attending schools with at least 5 years of CSCP implementation versus their peers in non-CSCP schools. Girls outperformed boys on various achievement measures. The findings and their implications for middle school counseling practice are discussed.

**********

Nearly 40 years ago, Norman Gysbers and his colleagues (Gysbers, 2001, 2005; Gysbers & Lapan, 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2001, 2005, 2006) began writing a model school counseling program that eventually would be used, in large part, as the template for The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs (American School Counselor Association, 2005). By the late 1990s, the comprehensive school counseling program (CSCP) movement was well underway with at least 24 states (Sink & MacDonald, 1998) adopting a Gysbers-type guidance and counseling program (Gysbers & Lapan). Since its publication, the ASCA National Model[R] has become the standard of practice for professional school counselors.

CSCPs are results-based systems that outline and direct the primary roles and functions of professional school counselors toward the promotion of students' academic, career, and personal-social developmental competencies (Gysbers & Henderson, 2006; Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Lapan, 2001). CSCPs aim to have every student gain key real-world skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to be a productive multicultural citizen (Sink, 2002). ASCA (2005) and others (e.g., Dahir & Stone, 2006; Paisley & Hayes, 2003; Sink, 2005b) have suggested that CSCPs should undergird a school's total educational program and promote academic achievement.

Although CSCPs are now widely disseminated and implemented around the country (Gysbers, 2005), their impact on (a) K-12 student development and achievement (Brown & Trusty, 2005; Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Sink, 2005a, 2005c) and (b) educational reform (see Jackson & Davis, 2000) in light of the No Child Left Behind legislation (U.S. Department of Education, 2001) remains underscrutinized. Initial CSCP research indicates that these systems-oriented programs are associated with positive skill development in the personal-social and career domains and increased student achievement (e.g., Brigman & Campbell, 2003; Lapan, Gysbers, Hughey, & Arni, 1993; Lapan, Gysbers, & Petroski, 2001; Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun, 1997; Lapan, Kardash, & Turner, 2002; Sink & Stroh, 2003).

For instance, in a statewide evaluation study (Utah State Office of Education, 2000) of Utah secondary schools, results indicated that students attending schools with more fully implemented CSCPs enrolled in more advanced science and math classes, and scored higher on all areas of the ACT, compared to students who attended schools with less fully implemented CSCPs. Further benefits included higher-rated guidance and career planning services and better job preparation programs in more fully implemented CSCPs.

In a more rigorous evaluation study of Missouri high schools with more fully implemented CSCPs, researchers found that students (a) reported receiving higher grades, (b) believed that their education was preparing them for their future, (c) received information about careers and colleges, and (d) reported that their school had a more positive climate (Lapan et al., 1997).

A similar evaluation study was conducted with 22,601 seventh-grade students in Missouri schools with CSCPs between 1992 and 1996 (Lapan et al., 2001). In this study, the researchers used hierarchical linear modeling to allow them to predict outcomes for group members as a function of individual characteristics as well as characteristics of the group to which they belonged.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

An Investigation of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs and Academic Achievement in Washington State Middle Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.