Training Elementary School Classroom Teachers to Lead Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education: In the Absence of Credentialed Specialists, How Can Schools Improve the Teaching of Physical Education?

By Sherman, Clay P. | JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, November-December 2008 | Go to article overview

Training Elementary School Classroom Teachers to Lead Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education: In the Absence of Credentialed Specialists, How Can Schools Improve the Teaching of Physical Education?


Sherman, Clay P., JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance


Physical education delivered during the school day provides early health promotion and an opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). It is widely acknowledged that it is ideal to have credentialed physical education specialists teaching physical education--in elementary school as elsewhere. However, because many states and school districts do not hire credentialed physical educators in elementary schools--or do not hire enough to provide physical education regularly--the multiple-subject classroom teacher is often responsible for teaching physical education. One study (Sallis & McKenzie, 1991) estimated that classroom teachers deliver 85 percent or more of elementary physical education instruction. In the age of streamlined and blended multiple-subject credential programs that focus on preparing teachers with fewer academic units, preparation for teaching physical education often consists of a single course or a several-hour seminar, or is ignored completely. Fortunately, and with good results, researchers and practitioners have investigated methods and benefits of training and supporting classroom teachers to deliver developmentally appropriate physical education (e.g., Faucette, Nugent, Sallis, & McKenzie, 2002; McKenzie, Alcaraz, Faucette, & Sallis, 1998; McKenzie, Sallis, Faucette, Roby, & Kolody, 1993; McKenzie, Sallis, Kolody, & Faucette, 1997; Perry et al., 1997; Sallis et al., 1997). Despite these efforts, elementary school classroom teachers continue to be challenged with the often overwhelming task of delivering consistent physical education to their students (Ennis, 2006).

Educating, training, and supporting classroom teachers (CRTs) to consistently deliver physical education content during the school day remains an important part of the prescription for arresting current health trends related to low physical activity rates (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005; Sallis, McKenzie, Kolody, & Curtis, 1996; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996). This article discusses recent efforts to provide year-long, progressive, professional development to CRTs in two large urban school districts. First, a collaborative partnership between a youth service agency (YMCA), two large urban school districts, and a university will be discussed. Second, the year-long professional development program will be examined in four distinct phases. Specific challenges at each phase of professional development will be presented and solutions will be explored. The article will then present feedback from CRTs who went through the training to illustrate some of the successes of the previous year's efforts and to highlight suggestions for modifying or refining the professional development model. Finally, recommendations for schools and districts wanting to train and support CRTs in delivering consistent physical education are outlined.

The term "classroom teachers" is used to refer to nonphysical educators only as a matter of convenience; physical educators are also recognized as classroom teachers in the most inclusive understanding of that term. In several instances the term "developmentally appropriate physical education" (DAPE) is used to differentiate the focus and mission of the model described in this article from what is often accepted as "PE" in many elementary schools. Classroom teachers, without the necessary training in physical education, may conceptualize it as recess time or simply "rolling out the balls." As "physically educated" people know, physical education or DAPE is much more than that and, for the purpose of educating, training, and supporting teachers, the developmental appropriateness of physical education is accentuated.

A Model Partnership

In 2004, a grant-writing team consisting of individuals from California State University at Fullerton, two large southern California school districts, and the YMCA sought funding for an intervention protocol designed to use physical education specialists (PESs) to provide year-long training and support to CRTs, and to supply approximately $11,000 worth of equipment to each school.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Training Elementary School Classroom Teachers to Lead Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education: In the Absence of Credentialed Specialists, How Can Schools Improve the Teaching of Physical Education?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.