Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student

By Bell, James A. | Education, Winter 2008 | Go to article overview

Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student


Bell, James A., Education


Background

Statistics anxiety has been defined as "feelings of anxiety encountered when taking a statistics course or doing statistical analyses; that is gathering, processing and interpreting data" (Cruise et. al., 1985). Statistics anxiety is negatively related to statistics achievement (Baloglu & Zelhart, 2003). Previous studies concerning international students have dealt with statistics anxiety in Production and Operations Management courses (Bell, 1998, 2001, 2003). The mathematical preparation of international students is superior to the preparation of the domestic students (Madison & Hart, 1990). Mathematics background plays an integral role in statistics anxiety. Students with an enhanced calculus preparation (a five semester hour calculus course or high school calculus) significantly lowered their anxiety levels during a business statistics course (Bell, 2003). Will the enhanced mathematical preparation cause the international student to exhibit less statistics anxiety? Another factor to consider is the format of the course. Students who took statistics in an accelerated time frame encountered higher levels of statistics anxiety (Bell, 2001,2005). Students who took a beginning course entirely via the computer encountered lower levels of statistics anxiety than those students who opted for a traditional course (Bell & Weller). Both the lack of positive feedback and the lack of encouragement by student instructors were found to lead to a negative student perception about the course and thus increased levels of statistics anxiety (Onwuegbuzie, 1997). Other studies have found that females tend to flourish in same-sex classrooms (Campbell & Evans, 1997) and women experienced higher levels of statistics anxiety than men (Onwuegbuzie, 1993). Statistics levels have been significantly lowered by removing time constraints when testing (Onwuegbuzie, 1995). However, relatively few studies exist that consider statistics anxiety concerning international students in the beginning statistics course.

Method

In the spirit of Corey's "Action Research" of the 1950s, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered at the beginning of a night course (one night/week, three hours/night, fifteen weeks) in business statistics. The night class was chosen for two reasons: students taking statistics in a night class suffered higher levels of statistics anxiety than those who opted for the traditional MWF or TR format and the night course seemed more popular with international students. What is "Action Research"? Corey (1954) defined "Action Research" as "deliberate, solution-oriented investigation which is designed, conducted, and implemented by teachers themselves to improve teaching in the classroom." The subjects in this experiment were sixty-six students in a beginning statistics class, twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students and the ordinal level of measurement of the Likert scale in STARS, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon T test was employed. The parametric test for independent samples requires that both populations are normal and have equal variances whereas the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon T test only requires at least ordinal data. Since both sample sizes are at least ten, the normal approximation to T can be used (Anderson, et. al. 1996).

Instrument

The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) consists of two parts. The first part presents twenty-eight situations often associated with statistics anxiety. These items are scored on a Likert-type scale from one to five, with a "one" indicating no anxiety with that situation while a "five" indicates considerable anxiety. The second part consists of twenty-eight statements dealing with statistics, with responses recorded on a Likert-type scale from one (no anxiety) to five (considerable anxiety). Hence, lower scores indicate lower levels of statistics anxiety. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.