Changes in Pest Infestation Levels, Self-Reported Pesticide Use, and Permethrin Exposure during Pregnancy after the 2000-2001 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Restriction of Organophosphates

By Williams, Megan K.; Rundle, Andrew et al. | Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2008 | Go to article overview

Changes in Pest Infestation Levels, Self-Reported Pesticide Use, and Permethrin Exposure during Pregnancy after the 2000-2001 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Restriction of Organophosphates


Williams, Megan K., Rundle, Andrew, Holmes, Darrell, Reyes, Marilyn, Hoepner, Lori A., Barr, Dana B., Camann, David E., Perera, Frederica P., Whyatt, Robin M., Environmental Health Perspectives


BACKGROUND: Widespread residential pesticide use throughout the United States has resulted in ubiquitous, low-level pesticide exposure. The mix of active pesticide ingredients is changing in response to 2000-2001 regulations restricting use of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations on pest infestation levels, pesticide use, and pesticides measured in indoor air samples.

METHODOLOGY: 511 pregnant women from inner-city New York were enrolled between 2000 and 2006. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide; piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a pyrethroid synergist; chlorpyrifos; and diazinon were measured in 48-hr prenatal personal air samples. Data on pest infestation and pesticide use were collected via questionnaire.

RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent of woman reported using pesticides during pregnancy; 55% reported using higher-exposure pesticide applications (spray cans, pest bombs and/or professional pesticide applicators). Self-reported pest sightings and use of higher-exposure applications increased significantly after the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). PBO, cis-, and trans-permethrin were detected in 75, 19, and 18% of personal air samples, respectively. Detection frequencies of PBO and cis-and trans-permethrin increased significantly over time (p < 0.05 controlling for potential confounders). Levels and/or detection frequencies of these compounds were significantly higher among mothers reporting use of high exposure pesticide applications (p [lesser than or equal to] 0.05). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon levels decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: In this cohort, pest infestations, use of pesticides, and use of permethrin appear to increase after the residential restriction of organophosphorus insecticides. This is one of the first studies to document widespread residential exposure to PBO.

KEY WORDS: indoor air, insecticides, pregnancy, residential. Environ Health Perspect 116:1681-1688 (2008). doi: 10.1289/ehp.11367 available via http://dx.doi.org/[Online 15 August 2008]

**********

Understanding the pattern of residential pesticide use and exposure is critical to identifying risks and devising prevention strategies. Widespread residential pesticide use among urban communities in the United States has resulted in ubiquitous, low-level exposure to pesticides. Research documenting the potential for development and reproductive toxicity resulting from low levels of pesticides led to stringent and uniform pesticide regulations focusing on the safety and protection of infants and children (National Research Council 1993). This legislation, the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA; 1996), profoundly affected the pattern of residential pesticide use in the United States. For example, in 2000-2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) withdraw the residential registrations for two commonly applied pesticides, chlopyrifos and diazinon (U.S. EPA 2000, 2001). Before these regulations, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were the most widely used insecticides for residential pest control in the United States, including among inner-city communities in New York City (Their et al. 1998). Subsequent studies have demonstrated the 2000-2001 EPA regulations nearly eliminated the sale of both chlorpyrifos and diazinon in these communities (Carlton et al. 2004). Data from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) also show a highly significant decrease in levels of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in environmental and biologic samples collected between 1999 and 2001 from New York City African Americans and Dominicans during pregnancy, although the mothers reported no change in their use of pesticides. These initial findings indicated that the degree of pesticide use had not changed, but the mix of active ingredients contained in pesticide formulations had changed. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Changes in Pest Infestation Levels, Self-Reported Pesticide Use, and Permethrin Exposure during Pregnancy after the 2000-2001 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Restriction of Organophosphates
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.