Women Executives in the Gaming Industry: Can They Break through the Glass Ceiling?

By Schaap, James Ike | Journal of Social and Psychological Sciences, July 2008 | Go to article overview

Women Executives in the Gaming Industry: Can They Break through the Glass Ceiling?


Schaap, James Ike, Journal of Social and Psychological Sciences


Despite comprising almost 50% of the total U.S. labor force, and 51.3% of employees in the U.S. casino industry (Price, Waterhouse, & Coopers, 2003), women are still underrepresented in high levels of business management. (According to Price, Waterhouse, & Coopers, 2003, this 51.3% figure includes Indian/Alaskan Native American employees.) It appears that the glass ceiling said to hinder women's advancement to senior-level management positions is still intact in the gaming industry.

"Political scientists and Nevada observers say women in Nevada may face a thicker glass ceiling because of the state's small, male-dominated political environment and a history of frontier sexism, wrote Coolican (2006)." Former Nevada Lieutenant Governor Lorraine Hunt, in the same article, noted that: "men make up the majority of senior executives in the state's dominant gaming industry" (Coolican, 2006). Clearly, the glass ceiling that hinders women's advancement to senior-level casino management is still intact.

Because little research on the glass-ceiling effect has focused specifically on the gaming industry, this researcher will explore to what extent women have the opportunity to demonstrate the skills and abilities considered necessary for promotion into senior-level leadership positions in the Nevada casinos. The findings could have significant implications for a segment of the entire United States' hospitality industry, which includes gaming industry.

Definition of Terms

The key management terms for the purposes of this paper are:

Senior-level Leaders--On the questionnaire that was sent to prospective participants, this researcher defined senior-level leaders as Owner, CEO and/or president, chief operating officer, general manager, assistant general manager, senior or executive vice president, vice president, CFO or controller, executive director, director, and senior-level manager. These people are ultimately responsible for the success/failure of the operations of the organization. In addition, these senior-level leaders have important strategy-making roles (Thompson, Gamble, & Strickland, 2006).

Gender and Career Success Research

The "glass ceiling" is a term coined in the 1970s in the United States to describe invisible and artificial barriers, created by attitudinal prejudices that block women from attaining senior-level leadership positions (Wirth, 2001). Are there still biased perceptions toward women today? Applebaum (2006) reported that women still face resistance in conservative business cultures, and the number of boardroom tables at which they hold seats varies widely by industry.

In 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a panel sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor found that the glass ceiling was continuing to deny untold numbers of qualified people the opportunity to compete for and hold executive-level positions in the private sector (U. S. Department of Labor, 1995). Further, Weber (1998) found that women executives in the gaming industry, a segment of the hospitality industry, mentioned the old boys' network as one of the key constraints to their career progression.

According to research performed by Catalyst, an organization devoted to advancing women in the workplace, a mere 57 of 13,000 corporate officers were women, only 96 women ran business units, and only 1.9% of the highest-earning corporate officers were women (Knutson & Schmidgall, 1999). In a subsequent study of Fortune 500 companies, Catalyst found that there still was a shortage of women in the top ranks and that there had been few changes in senior-level women's attitudes and experiences within the past seven years (Catalyst, 2003).

As recently as 2004, even though some women were close enough to the top positions in firms to be considered in the recruitment pool for senior-level leadership positions, they rarely achieved such positions (Maume, Jr.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Women Executives in the Gaming Industry: Can They Break through the Glass Ceiling?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.