Justice for the Sea Turtle: Marine Conservation and the Court of International Trade

By Kibel, Paul Stanton | UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy, Summer 1997 | Go to article overview

Justice for the Sea Turtle: Marine Conservation and the Court of International Trade


Kibel, Paul Stanton, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy


I.

INTRODUCTION: THE PLAINTIFF SURFACES

On April 10, 1996, the United States Court of International Trade (CIT) issued a landmark decision in Earth Island Institute v. Christopher.(1) In this case, the CIT ordered the U.S. State, Commerce, and Treasury Departments to block the importation of shrimp from all nations that had not adopted adequate policies to protect sea turtles.(2) Worldwide, over one hundred thousand sea turtles are killed each year as a result of shrimp-harvesting operations: the turtles drown trying to escape the shrimp nets.(3)

The CIT based its ruling on an interpretation of a 1989 amendment to the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), [sections] 609.(4) Section 609 created a shrimp "certification" program, wherein nations desiring to export shrimp to the U.S. must be certified by the U.S. government.(5) The U.S. government can only provide this certification if the exporting nation can demonstrate that it harvests shrimp using methods that provide a level of protection to sea turtles comparable to protection provided for under U.S. conservation laws.(6) Absent proof of comparable turtle protection laws, the U.S. government is required to ban shrimp imports.(7)

Although [sections] 609 requires that the shrimp certification be in place by May 1991, U.S. agencies did not meet this deadline.(8) Instead, they adopted regulations to limit the nations to which [sections] 609 applied, and to delay the application of the certification/ embargo provisions to these nations.(9) The plaintiffs in Earth Island challenged the legality of the government's limiting and delaying regulations, alleging that such, regulations were inconsistent with the plain language and requirements of [sections] 609.(10) The CIT agreed with the plaintiffs, and ordered the State, Commerce, and Treasury Departments to implement the certification and import ban programs by May 1, 1996.(11)

The Earth Island litigation is significant for at least three reasons. First, it establishes the CIT as the leading judicial forum, and most likely the exclusive trial court, for resolving legal issues surrounding trade-based environmental restrictions. Given the emerging nexus, both legally and economically, between international trade and the environment, this jurisdictional point is likely to take on ever-increasing importance. Second, on the issue of standing for environmental advocates, the Earth Island decision provided an important clarification of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1992 decision in Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife.(12) More specifically, it found that the Lujan decision was not a significant obstacle for environmental plaintiffs seeking review of U.S. government actions, so long as the remedy sought was likely to further or protect the plaintiffs' specific interests. Third, the CIT decision is significant for the arguments and legal principles that the court chose to reject. Most noteworthy was the CIT's rejection of the agencies' inadequate time and resources defense, and its conclusion that the shrimp certification program did not compromise U.S. international trade obligations.

This article will explore the origins and likely implications of the CIT's ruling in Earth Island. First, it will examine the threat posed to sea turtles by international shrimp fishing practices, and the U.S. Congressional response to this threat. Next, it win summarize the history and outcome of the Earth Island decision. Finally, the article will discuss the emerging conflict between [sections] 609 and the rules of international trade, in particular the rules established under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.(13)

II.

SEA TURTLES UNDER THREAT: THE CONGRESSIONAL RESPONSE

The population of sea turtles worldwide is threatened by destructive fishing practices.(14) The scientific community now recognizes that several species of sea turtles are now facing possible extinction.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Justice for the Sea Turtle: Marine Conservation and the Court of International Trade
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.