Developing the Evaluation Scale to Determine the Impact of Body Language in an Argument: Reliability & Validity Analysis

By Karadag, Engin; Caliskan, Nihat et al. | Journal of Instructional Psychology, December 2008 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Developing the Evaluation Scale to Determine the Impact of Body Language in an Argument: Reliability & Validity Analysis


Karadag, Engin, Caliskan, Nihat, Yesil, Rustu, Journal of Instructional Psychology


In this research, it is aimed to develop a scale to observe the body language which is used during an argument. A sample group of 266 teacher candidates study at the departments of Class, Turkish or Social Sciences at the Faculty of Education was used in this study. A logical and statistical approach was pursued during the development of scale. An expert's view was taken into consideration for the logical validity of scale. Thus, draft of the scale has become of 60 clauses. Clauses were written in the form of graduation scale of five-step likert type. Three different methods were applied throughout the application conducted with 266 students for the validity of scale. These methods included; (i) Factor analysis, (ii) total matter correlation, (iii) matter distinctiveness quality. As a result, the scale of body language used during an argument can be accepted as a reliable and valid tool to determine the impact levels of body languages of managers and arguers.

**********

To think, to express, to criticize and to examine are primary behaviors of human-being. It can be stated that human--being performs these acts as a result of his basic needs. It is hard to pronounce the normality of human being who lacks of thinking, examining, criticizing, or creating new ideas. An argument is a comprehensive activity which contains all these behaviors (Yesil, 2005, p.220). For man as an individual who asks, criticizes, challenges, thinks, objects and has crucial desires (Aydin, 1996, p. 167); an argument is an individualistic need and a natural result of a human being. For this reason, in an environment where there is a group of people which is in a state of interaction, it is regular and even necessary to have arguments (Yesil, 2004, p.22).

An argument is a crucial activity because of its contributions to individuals and to the community. Argument as an activity would be a great benefit in these areas: Providing effectiveness in the skills for thinking and teaching knowledge (Sanders & Wiseman 1994, p.27; Moore, 1999, p.211), maturing, sharing and publicizing existing ideas (Tozlu, 1998),diagnosing and curing mental illnesses (Parla, 1986, p.111), to convert differences into wealth (Bostanci, 1995, p.29; Levin, 1998, p.70), forming we feeling instead of I by dialogs (Petress, 2001, p.104; Thayer-Bacon, 1996, p.339), to have a multicultural life style (Touraine, 2000, p.212), providing individual and social progress, contributing to democracy (Lipman, 1998, p.11; Yesil, 2002, p.123).

To obtain these benefits which are stated above, an argument must have some features. Especially, it should be structured within some specific rules (Moore, 1999, p.211), it should take place under manager surveillance (Buyukkaragoz, 1997, p.80), arguers and managers should have the adequate knowledge and skills (Petress, 2001, p.108), and also positive attitude and behaviors (Sanders & Wiseman, 1994, p.28). These can be considered as the pre-conditions for arguments to be useful. As a consequence of not taking these pre-conditions into consideration, there would be obstacles for to have efficient arguments. The quality of the communication and interaction set by managers and arguers during an argument also provides to benefit efficiently from that argument. According to Moore (1999, p.211), the key factor for a successful argument is clear communication and a motivating atmosphere because at the same time, an argument is a process of communication and interaction (Levin, 1998, p.70). Communication is a web that owns undeniable acts for humans. During this process; between arguers and managers and also among arguers there is a steady communication and interaction. Verbal and visual messages are being transferred between respondents consciously or unconsciously. The structure, quality, contents and productivity of the argument are determined by the verbal and visual messages and their meanings.

The crucial dimension of communication and interaction between humans is body language.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Developing the Evaluation Scale to Determine the Impact of Body Language in an Argument: Reliability & Validity Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?