Developing the Evaluation Scale to Determine the Impact of Body Language in an Argument: Reliability & Validity Analysis
Karadag, Engin, Caliskan, Nihat, Yesil, Rustu, Journal of Instructional Psychology
In this research, it is aimed to develop a scale to observe the body language which is used during an argument. A sample group of 266 teacher candidates study at the departments of Class, Turkish or Social Sciences at the Faculty of Education was used in this study. A logical and statistical approach was pursued during the development of scale. An expert's view was taken into consideration for the logical validity of scale. Thus, draft of the scale has become of 60 clauses. Clauses were written in the form of graduation scale of five-step likert type. Three different methods were applied throughout the application conducted with 266 students for the validity of scale. These methods included; (i) Factor analysis, (ii) total matter correlation, (iii) matter distinctiveness quality. As a result, the scale of body language used during an argument can be accepted as a reliable and valid tool to determine the impact levels of body languages of managers and arguers.
To think, to express, to criticize and to examine are primary behaviors of human-being. It can be stated that human--being performs these acts as a result of his basic needs. It is hard to pronounce the normality of human being who lacks of thinking, examining, criticizing, or creating new ideas. An argument is a comprehensive activity which contains all these behaviors (Yesil, 2005, p.220). For man as an individual who asks, criticizes, challenges, thinks, objects and has crucial desires (Aydin, 1996, p. 167); an argument is an individualistic need and a natural result of a human being. For this reason, in an environment where there is a group of people which is in a state of interaction, it is regular and even necessary to have arguments (Yesil, 2004, p.22).
An argument is a crucial activity because of its contributions to individuals and to the community. Argument as an activity would be a great benefit in these areas: Providing effectiveness in the skills for thinking and teaching knowledge (Sanders & Wiseman 1994, p.27; Moore, 1999, p.211), maturing, sharing and publicizing existing ideas (Tozlu, 1998),diagnosing and curing mental illnesses (Parla, 1986, p.111), to convert differences into wealth (Bostanci, 1995, p.29; Levin, 1998, p.70), forming we feeling instead of I by dialogs (Petress, 2001, p.104; Thayer-Bacon, 1996, p.339), to have a multicultural life style (Touraine, 2000, p.212), providing individual and social progress, contributing to democracy (Lipman, 1998, p.11; Yesil, 2002, p.123).
To obtain these benefits which are stated above, an argument must have some features. Especially, it should be structured within some specific rules (Moore, 1999, p.211), it should take place under manager surveillance (Buyukkaragoz, 1997, p.80), arguers and managers should have the adequate knowledge and skills (Petress, 2001, p.108), and also positive attitude and behaviors (Sanders & Wiseman, 1994, p.28). These can be considered as the pre-conditions for arguments to be useful. As a consequence of not taking these pre-conditions into consideration, there would be obstacles for to have efficient arguments. The quality of the communication and interaction set by managers and arguers during an argument also provides to benefit efficiently from that argument. According to Moore (1999, p.211), the key factor for a successful argument is clear communication and a motivating atmosphere because at the same time, an argument is a process of communication and interaction (Levin, 1998, p.70). Communication is a web that owns undeniable acts for humans. During this process; between arguers and managers and also among arguers there is a steady communication and interaction. Verbal and visual messages are being transferred between respondents consciously or unconsciously. The structure, quality, contents and productivity of the argument are determined by the verbal and visual messages and their meanings.
The crucial dimension of communication and interaction between humans is body language. …