Gender Issues in the Classroom: A Comparison of Mathematics Anxiety

By Campbell, Kathleen T.; Evans, Cay | Education, Spring 1997 | Go to article overview

Gender Issues in the Classroom: A Comparison of Mathematics Anxiety


Campbell, Kathleen T., Evans, Cay, Education


The underachievement of females in society cannot be measured by grades in school because female academic performance is consistent with that predicted by standardized ability tests (Stockard & Wood, 1984). Female underachievement is evident, nevertheless, in talent development, occupational attainment, and self concept as adults. According to Reis (1987), this phenomenon is apparent in intelligent women "who do not achieve similar professional accomplishments as their male counterparts" (p. 84) and is reflected in "what a person believes can be attained or accomplished in life" (p. 84).

The present status of women in the workforce provides the best evidence that "many gifted women are functioning as underachieving adults" (Davis & Rimm, 1989, p. 337). Despite the increasing trend of women entering predominantly male-dominated careers, the fact remains that women still occupy stereotypical roles (Davis & Rimm, 1989). A 1985 report by the Women's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor (Fuller, 1990) indicated that the top ten jobs for women are secretary, cashier, bookkeeper, registered nurse, waitress, elementary school teacher, nursing aide, sales supervisor, and typist. A recent report by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1994) indicates that the 1993 status of females, although slightly altered, has remained basically the same.

Dembart (1984) reported that, although female scientists and engineers increased 200% between 1972 and 1982, women still represent only 3.5% of the 2 million American engineers and only 12% of the 225,000 physical scientists. A more recent report by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1994) indicates that in 1993, although female scientists and engineers increased 250% between 1982 and 1993, women still represent only 8.6% of all engineers and 30% of all physical scientists. The 1982 figures from the National Center for Educational Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, reported a dramatic increase in the number of females receiving bachelors' and professional degrees in male-dominated fields. With the exception of health professions, however, the percentage of females is still much lower than that of male (Davis & Rimm, 1989).

Sells (1973) called mathematics the critical filter which bars females from the higher paying, more prestigious occupations. As Rekdal (1984) pointed out, "Mathematics is a major key necessary in unlocking a majority of important career opportunities available for our most intelligent and academically able students" (p. 11).

The theory that males are innately superior in mathematical ability began a controversy that has been waged for years (Mccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Benbow & Stanley, 1980, 1982, 1983). The importance of the math differences hypothesis is related to the professional development of females because "male-dominated fields that convey high status and good financial rewards ... require skill in mathematics" (Davis & Rimm, 1989, p. 353, emphasis in original).

Many studies on gender differences in quantitative abilities have emerged since the Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) text on sex differences. Benbow and Stanley's (1982) study of adolescents in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) concluded that males significantly outperformed females on the College Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test in the mathematical part (SAT-M). More recent studies concerning gender differences in quantitative performance are mixed. Many reported that the gender gap is narrowing (Brophy, 1985; Freidman, 1989; Marsh, 1989; Hayes & Slate, 1993), while others reported not only that males consistently outperform females at the highest end of the mathematics ability continuum (Feingold, 1988), but also that males and females approach mathematical problem solving differently (Mills, Ablard, & Stumpf, 1993; Low & Over, 1993). Gallagher and DeLisi (1994) studied males and females who had scored at least 670 on the math portion of the SAT.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Gender Issues in the Classroom: A Comparison of Mathematics Anxiety
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.