A Land-Use-Planning Simulation Using Google Earth: Search Maps
Bodzin, Alec M., Cirucci, Lori, Science Scope
Google Earth (GE) is proving to be a valuable tool in the science classroom for understanding the environment and making responsible environmental decisions (Bodzin 2008). GE provides learners with a dynamic mapping experience using a simple interface with a limited range of functions. This interface makes geospatial analysis accessible and feasible for classroom use. The ability to use, analyze, and interpret remotely sensed satellite and aerial images is becoming more and more important in many scientific and industrial fields. To promote these skills in our eighth-grade science curriculum, we developed a four-week land-use-change curricular unit in which students use geospatial information technology tools including GE and other remotely sensed images to investigate modern-day land-use issues and land-use change over time. The land-use-change (LUC) unit is available online at www. ei.lehigh.edu/nes/luc. The unit's activities can be successfully implemented with pairs of students working together on computers. Activities can also be implemented in a one-computer classroom with the teacher projecting the screen image to the front of the classroom and distributing printed copies of certain GE screenshots for the analysis activities. If computers are not available, providing students with printed copies of GE screenshots will enable them to complete the learning activities.
As a culminating activity, we developed a role-playing simulation in which learners investigate the following question: Where should the new SuperMart Corporation build their new superstore in the greater metropolitan Lehigh Valley area to have minimal impact on the environment? In this six-day activity, students use Google Earth to analyze and evaluate features of different land areas for four proposed development sites (days 1 and 2). They develop a proposal to apply smart growth principles to their planning decisions (days 3 and 4) and communicate their plan with a presentation in a simulated planning-commission meeting (days 5 and 6). Smart growth is a term used to describe the desire and strategy to provide new growth and development in the most appropriate areas while protecting our natural resources. Although this activity was developed for a land-use-change unit, it can also be integrated into a middle school curricular unit that focuses on environmental issues related to human impacts on the environment.
Most urban areas experience commercial, industrial, and residential development associated with population growth and expansion, which may result in a loss of natural vegetation, agricultural lands, and open space (Alberti 2005). Such growth is often accompanied by a general decline in the extent and connectivity of wildlife and wetland habitat. Land-cover and land-use changes can be substantial but are difficult to grasp when they occur incrementally (Laymon 2003). Image displays in GE, when used with overlay features such as roads and 3-D buildings in urban areas, provide support for students to identify and interpret land-cover features (Bodzin and Cirucci, forthcoming).
The LUC unit is designed to assist students in understanding land-use-change concepts including urban heat-island effects and to promote the learning of essential skills used in aerial-photo interpretation. Urban heat islands occur when heat builds up in a city and creates a "hot spot" compared to nearby suburban and rural areas. To understand concepts involved in the formation of urban heat islands, students investigate how shopping malls change natural environments. They learn how communities can use certain heat-island reduction strategies to lower the impact of an urban heat-island effect. Students complete a case study of the greater Atlanta area to understand environmental issues that are typically associated with sprawl. Their investigations continue with a case study of the Lehigh Valley (LV) area in Pennsylvania to identify area land features. They then compare land-use types around five different shopping mall areas using Google Earth to examine the significance of mall locations. Prior to the culminating activity, students analyze and interpret satellite data images and aerial photographs to examine landscape changes over time in different locations around the world. While the LUC activities are not a required prerequisite to complete the culminating Where Should We Build the New SuperMart? activity, they may be helpful for students to understand some of the environmental issues that are typically associated with developing a new, large commercial structure in a community.
The Where Should We Build the New SuperMart? activity is a full inquiry activity that includes all essential features of inquiry. It can be implemented in fewer days as a partial inquiry activity. For example, one can complete the GE analysis activity of the proposed sites in two days and not hold the simulated planning-commission meeting, thus eliminating the authentic communication feature of the activity in which learners consider alternative explanations to their planning decisions. The activity is a geographical case study that engages students with analyzing rural, suburban, and urban areas. The infrastructure considerations one makes in the simulation are reflective of authentic planning decisions in each type of demographic area. The ideas presented in this activity may be customized to reflect other geographical areas in the country. Google Earth's website contains a tutorial that instructs you how to create, edit, and position geographical placemarks of specific locations in your own area that students can analyze (http://earth. google.com/userguide/v4/tutorials).
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The simulation activity
The simulation activity is introduced by asking students what types of things developers must consider when they plan to build a new, large department store in an area. We prompt students to think about infrastructure issues such as the availability of roads and sidewalks for transportation to get people to the store, and access to water and electrical lines to supply basic needs for the store to function. This activity introduction takes about seven minutes and we make sure that students understand the importance of needing basic infrastructure for new development.
Next, we tell students they will be conducting a role-playing simulation activity in which they will be employees of the Lehigh Valley Planning Commission (LVPC). We explain that the LVPC is an organization that helps guide sensible growth in the LV area and provides advice and recommendations to cities and towns that wish to further develop their existing lands. We tell students the LVPC has been asked by the SuperMart Corporation to help them decide where to locate and build the next SuperMart in the LV area so that the new store will have the least impact on the environment. Their task is to use Google Earth to examine four proposed locations for the new store, make a recommendation, prepare a proposal statement, and develop and present a five-minute PowerPoint presentation that describes why their development plan is the best plan for the area. Since this is an authentic real-world task, students are highly motivated to begin work.
We distribute the Where Should We Build the New SuperMart? handout (see Activity Worksheet) to each student. This handout provides students with necessary content background about the role of the LVPC and about smart growth. After students read the handout, we hold a brief classroom discussion to ensure students understand the mission of the LVPC and the goals of smart growth, and to share ideas for developing land for new businesses in responsible ways.
Next, we distribute a blank copy of the Proposed SuperMart Analysis Form (Figure 1) to each student. Figure 1 depicts an example of a completed copy that illustrates correct responses. We then display the SuperMartsites.kml file (available online at www.ei.lehigh. edu/learners/luc/SuperMartsites.kml) in Google Earth and show students how to move from one site location to the next by extending the sites drop-down list and clicking on a specific location name (Figure 2). We then show students how to turn on the roads layer in Google Earth to view the existing transportation infrastructure. Next, we model how to use the ruler tool to measure the distances of residential areas to the proposed SuperMart locations. Most students complete the Proposed SuperMart Analysis Form in one and a half class periods. Student responses are shared and both positive and negative impacts of development at each location are discussed. To conclude this instructional segment, we ask students to analyze their responses and make their recommendation for the best site that will have the minimal impact on the environment.
Next, students write a proposal statement for the SuperMart Corporation. We tell students that their proposal statement should clearly describe how the proposed site selection promotes smart growth to slow down effects from sprawl. We instruct students to address the guiding questions (#4) on the Activity Worksheet. Each student receives a Proposal Statement Rubric (Figure 3) to use as a guideline for writing the proposal and is given one class period to complete this task.
We divide the class into teams of two students who have selected the same site recommendation. We tell students that their team will develop a five-minute PowerPoint presentation that clearly describes why their development plan is the best plan for the SuperMart Corporation to have minimal impact on the environment. We emphasize that they are trying to convince the SuperMart Corporation to use their site selection. Their presentation needs to be as factual and persuasive as possible, and they should make claims clearly and support them with facts and evidence. Each student receives a Proposal Presentation Rubric (Figure 3). We have students read the rubric and tell them that their presentation needs to address each rubric criteria. In our classes with lower-level readers, we read to students each criterion on the Proposal Presentation Rubric, clarify any vocabulary terms they might have difficulty with, and provide explanations as needed. Finally, we instruct students to read through the guidelines for the proposal presentation (#5) on the Activity Worksheet. If computers are not available for students to create a PowerPoint presentation, we recommend that students create a poster presentation and be provided with printed screenshots of the site location. We found that two days was a sufficient amount of time for our student groups to assemble their presentation.
We provide students with a peer-assessment sheet to rate their partner's contribution to the presentation. This peer-assessment sheet promotes individual accountability and deters social loafing within groups. Peer-assessment sheets are also quite helpful in providing us with data for assigning an individual grade component for the presentation.
The final part of the activity is devoted to the student presentations in a simulated planning-commission meeting. To focus students on each group's presentation, we recommend having students adopt the role of community members and write down questions to ask the presenting group. At the conclusion of each presentation, randomly select two students to ask their questions to the presenting group. If desired, students' questions may be used as a participation assessment to provide accountability for paying attention during the group presentations.
Student proposals and presentations
Overall, we were quite pleased with the quality of our student proposals and presentations. Many students considered both the positive and the negative tradeoffs involved in their site selection. Students who recommended locations B and C as their proposed sites noted that these locations took advantage of existing transportation infrastructure since they were located near a highway and major roads. They also pointed out that water and electrical lines would likely be available since these sites were positioned near densely populated areas. Many students told us these areas appeared to be cleared of vegetation and would likely not affect existing wildlife as much as the other site locations. They informed us that SuperMart would have to build a new access road to the new store locations. Consequently, students also noted that the new SuperMart would likely increase traffic to the area and produce pollution during the construction of the building and parking lot. Many students noted that locations A and D were located in rural areas and most likely did not have much existing infrastructure for water or electricity at those sites. During the presentations, students discussed an important social trade-off about these locations--while locating a store in these areas might provide easy access to small nearby population areas, most people would have to commute long distances to shop at these locations. Many groups noted that development in these areas would "destroy a whole lot of vegetation for the roads" and much money would be needed "to get water and electricity out there."
Many proposals noted that the creation of a new SuperMart and its associated parking lot could disrupt the existing ecosystem, displace animals from their habitats, and contribute to urban heat-island effects. Students recommended many smart growth practices in their proposals to provide compromises for these negative consequences. These included planting trees in the parking lot and in areas adjacent to the store, using a lighter-colored concrete surface for the parking lot instead of asphalt, making the parking lot as small as possible, using a light-colored roof on the SuperMart to reduce the amount of heat absorbed by the building, and placing the store's garden department on the roof to create a "green roof."
We were surprised to discover during the activity that a few students had a naive conception about developing in an agricultural area. These students noted that building a SuperMart on a large farmland area "would not disturb a natural area because there are no living things around it." In discussions with these students, they told us they did not think dirt fields had existing life in them. They did not view a farmland area as having a distinct ecosystem. While this conception was a view held by only a few students, we recommend explicitly addressing this conception at the beginning of the activity if you teach students who live in an urban setting and may lack sufficient background knowledge about agricultural areas.
Using appropriate pedagogical strategies, GE can be used effectively to highlight the impacts of human processes associated with developing rural, suburban, and urban areas. The ideas presented in this simulation activity can be adapted to any geographical area. If you wish to develop a related activity in your own geographical area, we recommend selecting four potential new SuperMart locations for students to analyze. Two locations should be better locations for developing a SuperMart than the other two locations. This reflects real-life planning decisions, since a particular geographic area will likely include multiple locations where existing infrastructure will be sufficient for a new site location. In rural areas, we recommend including locations that are located alongside roads and close to small communities. Such sites will likely have nearby existing electrical and water infrastructure. In urban areas, we suggest selecting locations that include abandoned industrial areas to emphasize ideas related to reusing existing structures. In addition, locations that people are able to walk to or have easy access to via public transportation should also be included. For suburban areas, site selections should include areas located nearby interstate exits or major roads that include existing malls, stores, and restaurants. Such locations emphasize suburban area consumer needs to attend to their shopping and related activities in one convenient area.
We have found GE to be an effective tool for developing in middle school learners certain spatial-thinking skills to investigate land-use features. Our land-use-planning simulation activity was an effective way for students to learn and understand how human activities influence environmental changes. In this activity, students learned about many trade-offs communities must consider when planning for new commercial development, thus placing science in personal and social perspectives.
Alberti, M. 2005. The effects of urban patterns on ecosystem function. International Regional Science Review 28 (2): 168-92.
Bodzin, A. 2008. Integrating instructional technologies in a local watershed investigation with urban elementary learners. Journal of Environmental Education 39 (2): 1-11.
Bodzin, A., and L. Cirucci. Forthcoming. Integrating geospatial technologies to examine urban land use change: A design partnership. Journal of Geography.
Laymon, C. 2003. Satellite remote sensing of land use change. Directions Magazine. July 23. www.directions mag.com/article.php?article_id=365.
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET: Where Should We Build the New SuperMart?
You work for the Lehigh Valley Planning Commission (LVPC). The LVPC was formed by Lehigh and Northampton counties to create a comprehensive plan to guide responsible growth in the LV area in Pennsylvania. This comprehensive plan will include a policy statement regarding the character, location, and rate of growth desired by the community, as well as guidelines for how to achieve these goals. The comprehensive plan will address land use, transportation (such as roads and railways), and natural resources (such as rivers and lakes).
At LVPC, you work with many other people to provide advice and recommendations to cities and towns that wish to further develop their existing lands.
As part of your mission, you do your best to
* coordinate plans for orderly growth, development, and redevelopment of the LV;
* encourage appropriate land use;
* make sure that new development occurs in an appropriate area;
* direct growth to existing population areas;
* encourage the use of the existing infrastructure (such as roads and commercial and business areas) and to plan for new infrastructure as needed (such as roads, water, and electrical);
* promote the conservation of land, water, air, and energy in the LV;
* protect sensitive areas and preserve unique historic and natural features; and
* promote improved traffic and transportation flow.
The LVPC has adopted a smart growth policy. Smart growth is a term used to describe the desire and strategy to provide new growth and development in the most appropriate areas while protecting our natural resources.
Goals of smart growth include
* saving our most valuable remaining natural resources before they are forever lost;
* supporting existing communities and neighborhoods by developing in areas where the infrastructure is already in place; and
* saving taxpayers millions of dollars in unnecessary costs for building new infrastructure (such as roads and commercial and business areas) required to support sprawl.
Smart growth encourages growth and development in ways that focus on wise resource use. These include
* taking advantage of existing structures, such as reusing abandoned industrial sites (brownfield redevelopment);
* building along public transportation routes and rail lines; and
* preserving open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas.
The SuperMart Corporation has contacted the LVPC for advice and recommendations about where to locate a new SuperMart in the LV area. A new SuperMart requires the development of a very large building and a very large parking lot area. SuperMart seeks to have minimal impact on the environment when they develop a new store.
SuperMart has provided your team with a Google Earth file that shows the location of four different proposed store sites.
Your task is to
* analyze each site with smart growth principles in mind and select the best site to build a new SuperMart that will have the least impact on the environment;
* write a proposal statement for your site selection; and
* create a presentation and present it to the SuperMart Corporation.
1. Use Google Earth to explore and analyze each proposed store site. You can move from one site location to the next by extending the SuperMart sites drop-down list and clicking on a specific location name.
2. Record your observations and analysis on the Proposed SuperMart Analysis Form. Each team member must complete his or her own form. Helpful hints: Turn on the roads layer in Google Earth to view the existing transportation infrastructure. Use the ruler tool in Google Earth to measure the distances of residential areas to the proposed SuperMart locations.
3. After completing the Proposed SuperMart Analysis Form, select the best site that will have minimal impact on the environment. Write this down on your analysis form.
4. Write a proposal statement for selecting the best site for a new SuperMart location that will have the least impact on the environment. Individual team members must write their own proposal statement.
Clearly describe how your proposed site selection promotes smart growth to slow down effects from sprawl by addressing the following questions in your proposal:
* What are the major transportation issues (such as existing roads, water, and electricity) facing the SuperMart development plan?
* How will the new SuperMart impact sensitive areas (such as nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams) and natural features?
* How will the new SuperMart preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas?
* How does your site take advantage of existing structures, such as reusing abandoned industrial sites or existing roads?
* How will the new SuperMart support existing communities and neighborhoods where roads, water, and electricity are already in place?
* What actions could SuperMart take to protect farmland, forests and other natural areas?
* What else can SuperMart do to develop this site to reduce the impact on the environment? Make your recommendations.
5. Present your proposal orally to the class. Your team will develop a five-minute PowerPoint presentation that describes reasons why your development plan is the best plan. Remember, you are trying to convince the rest of the class that your site selection is the best plan. Your presentation needs to be as factual and persuasive as possible. Make claims clearly and support them with facts and evidence.
* Your PowerPoint presentation can contain no more than five slides.
* You should include at least one graphic of your proposed site. It is recommended that you take a screenshot from Google Earth and talk about the site area during your presentation.
* Describe the proposed site. What does the existing land look like?
* Describe how the proposed site takes advantage of existing structures, such as reusing abandoned industrial sites or existing roads.
* Describe how the proposed site supports existing communities and neighborhoods where infrastructure (sidewalks, roads, and other commercial areas) is already in place.
* Describe how the proposed site will impact sensitive areas (wildlife habitats) and natural features (rivers, agriculture areas).
* Recommend how SuperMart can develop this site to reduce its impact on the environment.
Alec M. Bodzin (firstname.lastname@example.org) is an associate professor in the Teaching, Learning, and Technology program and the Lehigh Environmental Initiative at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Lori Cirucci is a science teacher at Broughal Middle School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
FIGURE 1 Proposed SuperMart analysis form Examine the four proposed locations for developing a new SuperMart using the Google Earth file, SuperMartsites.kml. Respond to each item for all four locations in the chart below. After you have completed the chart, recommend the best location to develop a new SuperMart. (Answers are provided in italics.) Location A Location B Describe the current Farmland. Primarily a cleared land use of the Agricultural area. dirt area with some proposed site. (What patches of trees. does the land area look like?) What natural features A wooded area is A few tree stands. are in the area? just south of the location. The residential area north of the site contains large grassy areas and small wooded areas. What human-made Roads, fallow and A highway (1-78), a features are in the cultivated fields, major road (412), a area? houses, and barns. nearby residential area, a town south of the highway, a city to the northeast (1 mile), and a large industrial area north of the site. Describe the nearby There are two very Many people would be population areas. small residential able to walk to the (Can people walk to areas near the site. site from a nearby the site? How far away One immediately residential area, are residential north and one from the town south communities?) southwest. A small of the highway, and population center is from the city to the located 2.4 miles northeast (1 mile). southeast from the site. Describe the existing Route 309, a major A highway (1-78) infrastructure. (Are road, is located inter change with a there existing roads next to the site. major road (412) is and commercial or There are no located 0.5 miles business areas near commercial areas away from the site. the location?) near the location. There are stores The site is located located at the in a rural area. highway interchange. Describe new New roads will not A new road will need infra structure that be needed since the to be constructed to will be needed for site is located next move people from 412 this site. (Will new to Route 309. Water to the site. Water roads need to be and electricity and electricity built? Do you think lines will likely lines will likely the site has easy need to be need to be access to water and constructed. constructed. electricity?) Describe the positive A SuperMart at this A SuperMart at this impacts of the site location will location will location. (What are provide shopping provide shopping the benefits and access to many access to many advantages of having residents in an residents in an a SuperMart at this extended rural area. urban and sub-urban location?) These people will area. These people not have to travel will not have to as far to do their travel as far to do shopping. their shopping and many could walk. Easy highway access. Describe the negative A SuperMart at this Some trees will need impacts of the site location will to be removed. The location. (What are convert an landscape will the disadvantages of agricultural area to change, resulting in having a SuperMart at a large impervious environmental this location?) surface. The consequences such as landscape will alteration of water change, resulting in runoff patterns, environ mental some habitat consequences such as destruction, and alteration of water some heat-island runoff patterns, effects. habitat destruction, and heat-island effects. Location C Location D Describe the current Primarily a cleared Farmland. land use of the dirt area. Agricultural area. proposed site. (What does the land area look like?) What natural features A river is located There are some are in the area? 0.25 miles away from wooded areas around the site. There are the perimeter of the a few trees near the location. A river is site. located less than a mile from the site. What human-made Many office Roads, fallow and features are in the complexes and cultivated fields, area? industrial buildings and houses in a are near the site. A residential area. highway interchange (I-22) with a major road is 1.5 miles away. A dense urban area surrounds the site. Describe the nearby A dense urban area A residential area population areas. surrounds the site. is located 0.6 miles (Can people walk to Many people would be southwest of the the site? How far away able to walk to the site. A small are residential site. The nearest population center is communities?) residential area is located 4.5 miles 0.5 miles from the southwest from the site. site. Describe the existing There are many Route 611, a major infrastructure. (Are existing roads and road, is located 0.4 there existing roads industrial areas miles from the site. and commercial or near the location. There are no business areas near commercial areas the location?) near the location. The site is located in a rural area. Describe new Not much new New roads will be infra structure that infrastructure for needed. Water and will be needed for water and electricity lines this site. (Will new electricity will be will likely need to roads need to be needed for this be constructed. built? Do you think location. No new the site has easy roads will need to access to water and be built. electricity?) Describe the positive A SuperMart at this A SuperMart at this impacts of the site location will location will location. (What are provide shopping provide shopping the benefits and access to many access to many advantages of having residents in a dense residents in an a SuperMart at this area. These people extended rural area. location?) will not have to These people will travel as far to do not have to travel their shopping and as far to do their many could walk. shopping. Nearby highway access. Describe the negative A few trees may need An agricultural area impacts of the site to be removed. The will be converted to location. (What are landscape will a large impervious the disadvantages of change, resulting in surface. The having a SuperMart at environmental landscape will this location?) consequences such as change resulting in alteration of water environmental runoff patterns, consequences such as some habitat alteration of water destruction, and runoff patterns, some heat-island habitat destruction, effects. and heat-island Construction may effects. impact the river ecosystem. The best site that will have minimal impact on the environment is -- (Location B or C) FIGURE 3 Where Should We Build the New SuperMart? proposal statement rubric Criterion Exemplary (4) Proficient (3) Proposal discusses Major transportation Major transportation major transportation issues discussed are issues discussed are issues (such as credible and credible and generally existing roads) completely accurate. accurate. facing the SuperMart development plan. Proposal discusses The proposal clearly The proposal how the new discusses the impact generally discusses SuperMart will on sensitive areas. the impact on impact sensitive sensitive areas. areas (such as nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams) and natural features. Proposal discusses The proposal clearly The proposal generally how the new discusses the discusses the SuperMart will preservation of open preservation of open preserve open space, space, farmland, space, farmland, farmland, natural natural beauty, and natural beauty, and beauty, and critical critical environmental critical environmental environmental areas. areas. areas. Proposal explains The proposal clearly The proposal generally how the SuperMart explains how the explains how the new will take advantage SuperMart will take SuperMart will take of existing advantage of existing advantage of existing structures, such as structures. structures. reusing abandoned industrial sites or existing roads. Proposal discusses Discussion of how Discussion of how the how the SuperMart the SuperMart will SuperMart will support will support support existing existing communities existing communities communities is is credible and and neighborhoods thorough and complete. substantial. where roads, water, and electricity are already in place. Proposal discusses Actions SuperMart Actions SuperMart actions SuperMart could take are highly could take are could take to effective. generally effective. protect farmland, forests, and other natural areas. Proposal includes Recommendations Recommendations recommendations of are insightful and are generally how SuperMart can accurate. accurate. develop this site to reduce the impact on the environment. Criterion Adequate (2) Needs improvement (1) Proposal discusses Major transportation Major transportation major transportation issues discussed are issues discussed are issues (such as somewhat credible and inaccurate. existing roads) accurate. facing the SuperMart development plan. Proposal discusses The proposal is It is unclear how the how the new somewhat unclear new SuperMart will SuperMart will as to the impact on impact sensitive impact sensitive sensitive areas. areas. areas (such as nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams) and natural features. Proposal discusses The proposal is It is unclear how the how the new somewhat unclear about new SuperMart will SuperMart will how the new SuperMart preserve open space, preserve open space, will preserve open farmland, natural farmland, natural space, farmland, beauty, and critical beauty, and critical natural beauty, and environmental areas. environmental areas. critical environmental areas. Proposal explains The proposal somewhat The proposal does not how the SuperMart explains how the new explain how the new will take advantage SuperMart will take SuperMart will take of existing advantage of existing advantage of existing structures, such as structures. structures. reusing abandoned industrial sites or existing roads. Proposal discusses Discussion of how Discussion of how the how the SuperMart the SuperMart will SuperMart will support will support support existing existing communities existing communities communities is partial is very incomplete and and neighborhoods or incomplete. includes where roads, water, misunderstandings. and electricity are already in place. Proposal discusses Actions SuperMart Actions SuperMart actions SuperMart could take are could take are could take to somewhat effective. ineffective. protect farmland, forests, and other natural areas. Proposal includes Recommendations Recommendations are recommendations of are somewhat inaccurate. how SuperMart can accurate. develop this site to reduce the impact on the environment.…
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Publication information: Article title: A Land-Use-Planning Simulation Using Google Earth: Search Maps. Contributors: Bodzin, Alec M. - Author, Cirucci, Lori - Author. Journal title: Science Scope. Volume: 32. Issue: 7 Publication date: March 2009. Page number: 30. © 2009 National Science Teachers Association. COPYRIGHT 2009 Gale Group.
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