An Analysis of Middle School Students Physical Education Physical Activity Preferences

By Hill, Grant; Hannon, James C. | Physical Educator, Winter 2008 | Go to article overview

An Analysis of Middle School Students Physical Education Physical Activity Preferences


Hill, Grant, Hannon, James C., Physical Educator


Abstract

The idea of providing student's choice over curricular offerings in physical education has gained a considerable amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to determine which physical education activities middle school students would like to have included in the yearly curriculum and if there were differences in responses based on gender, student motor skill competency, grade level and participation in physical activities outside of regular school hours. Participants included 881 students enrolled in physical education at two middle schools in one school district. Students completed a survey that included a demographic section, a list of activities pertinent to middle school physical education, and two additional lines so students would have the option of writing in additional activities of interest. One teacher from each school administered all of the surveys for their school and ranked students according to their motor skill competency. Of the 33 activities listed on the survey Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences for 21 activities by gender, 10 activities by skill level 11 activities by grade, and 12 activities by after school sport/activity participation. Students wrote in an additional 30 activities not included on the survey checklist. Results demonstrate the importance of considering multiple factors including gender, skill grade, and after school sport/activity participation when making decisions on curricular offerings for middle school physical education.

**********

In order to strengthen the presence of physical education in schools, physical educators should consider the interests and needs of students when selecting activity units (Greenwood & Stillwell, 2001; McKenzie, Sallis, Broyles, Zive, Nader, Berry, & Brennan, 2004; Pate, Dowda, O'Neill, & Ward, 2007). That is, physical education is more likely to survive if it includes activities that students find desirable since curriculum has been found to be the most important consideration for both males and females in determining their attitude toward physical education (Luke & Sinclair, 1991). There are several factors that may influence student selection of specific activities. These factors include societal and environment influences, gender, student age, student skill level, and level of student physical activity outside of school hours (Eyler, Nanney, Brownson, Lohman, & Haire-Joshu, 2006; Fromal, Formankova, & Sallis, 2002; Hill & Cleven, 2005; Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000).

Societal and environmental influences may affect students' choices of activities by directing youth to mainstream activities and limiting exposure to other activities (Young, Felton, Grieser, Elder, Johnson, Lee, et al., 2007). As a result, students may select specific activities because they are most familiar with them. This influence may also be reinforced by media focus on specific activities, ethnic or cultural values, or positive role models associated with specific physical activities (Bruce & Saunders, 2005). Other factors that contribute to students' choices are availability of equipment, facilities, expertise of physical education teachers, and previous involvement on school or recreational athletic teams (Hill & Cleven, 2005).

Gender may also influence students' choices of activities. Bradley, McMurray, Harrell, and Deng (2000) reported that middle school girls prefer noncompetitive or individual activities, whereas middle school boys tend to choose traditional team sports. Hill and Cleven (2005), found, in comparing the activity selections of 9th grade boys and girls, that girls were more likely to select individual and non contact activities such as swimming, volleyball, contemporary dance, aerobics, gynmastics, and rope jumping while boys more frequently selected contact and power activities such as weight training, floor/street hockey, and football. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

An Analysis of Middle School Students Physical Education Physical Activity Preferences
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.