Diplomacy in a New Age: How the National Guard Builds International Partnerships through Local Communities

By Hoyle, Tim | DISAM Journal, March 2009 | Go to article overview

Diplomacy in a New Age: How the National Guard Builds International Partnerships through Local Communities


Hoyle, Tim, DISAM Journal


[The following article is solely the product of the author (as footnoted); and any opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of DISAM, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD, the Air Force, or Air National Guard.]

Giving Power to Gain Security--Detente

Under the Nixon Administration, the President looked for a way to extract the United States (U.S.) from Vietnam. Containment of communism was not working. Henry Kissinger proposed a new security arrangement. He was the chief architect of detente. Kissinger championed detente as a new system that promoted stability and equilibrium. To do this, "major powers had to renounce the use of nuclear weapons." [Jones 2001]. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was an unprecedented movement towards nuclear disarmament and control under the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I and II treaties. During this transition period, states began to work in a cooperative fashion to defuse tensions between the East and the West. Significant draw-downs of strategic nuclear weapons made the world a much safer place from atomic holocaust. Detente was an early signal that the world was prepared to march into a new era. Cooperation through equilibrium of power changed how modern nation states interacted. Absolute security was not the goal, as seen earlier in the 20th century. Under detente, the U.S. and the USSR recognized that no single nation could have absolute security.

This new security arrangement required that nation states yield some of their sovereignty. Nations would now allow their potential enemies access to their most closely guarded secrets. Transparency was essential to ensure compliance with the SALT treaties. This is a dramatic departure from traditional security systems. During the age of detente, nuclear-armed states agreed to destroy weapons, decommission missile sites, and allow for weapons inspections. Since the end of the Cold War, the nature of bi-polar strategic threats has evaporated. With the re-balancing of power, the Soviet Union began to dismantle. The U.S. became even more concerned about the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In addition, the U.S. did not have political or diplomatic relations with these newly emerging countries.

Preventative Defense and Global Engagement

During the Clinton Administration, the National Security Strategy highlighted the policy of engagement. Known as "Shape, Respond, and Prepare," the National Security Strategy emphasized the need to achieve global and regional integration through Theater Engagement Plans (TEPs). TEPs would "shape" the battle-space by building alliances and partnerships through the use of all instruments of U.S. power, diplomatic, military, and economic. Then Secretary of Defense, William J. Perry outlined his view of Preventive Defense, "actions we can take to prevent the conditions of conflict and create the conditions of peace." [Perry 1996] Perry voiced his opinion that democracy was the key to ensuring U.S. security interests. Democratic states were important in advancing stability and reducing violence. Perry called for U.S. foreign policy to be engaged throughout the globe to promote democracy, with particular emphasis aimed toward Eastern Europe. Perry likened Preventive Defense to the aims of the Marshall Plan. He observed that the Marshall Plan provided stability to Europe immediately after World War II. This helped nation-states rebuild their capability to support the regional defense system as east-west tensions grew. As the world was changing, the role of the military has transformed dramatically. Perry looked for alternative means to protect U.S. national interests. To do all of this, he advocated alternative and non-coercive methods to shape international behavior. To make his point about paving the way towards peace, he highlighted the impact of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He held this program up as an important diplomatic tool that was integrating former Soviet Bloc nations into the new security architecture, promoting democratic regimes, and spreading free-market reforms. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Diplomacy in a New Age: How the National Guard Builds International Partnerships through Local Communities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.