Juan Carlos Gonzalez Faraco. Il Cavaliere Errante. la Poetica Educativa Di Don Chisciotte

By Gomez Canseco, Luis | Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, Spring 2009 | Go to article overview

Juan Carlos Gonzalez Faraco. Il Cavaliere Errante. la Poetica Educativa Di Don Chisciotte


Gomez Canseco, Luis, Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America


Juan Carlos Gonzalez Faraco. Il cavaliere errante. La poetica educativa di Don Chisciotte. Edizione a cura di Anita Gramigna. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2008. 124 pp. ISBN: 978-88-464-9256-2.

Durante casi dos siglos, el Quijote ha sido una de las columnas ideologicas sobre la que se han sostenido, al menos en los paises de habla hispana, buena parte de los ideales concebidos en torno a la educacion. La lengua, la moral, el pensamiento, todo -al parecer- venia embutido en un libro que se entregaba a ninos y a jovenes fragmentado en pildoras y, a veces, incluso de un solo trago. Lo cierto es que, si algunos lo leian, otros hacian cuanto estaba en sus manos para esquivarlo.

Por suerte o por desgracia, en nuestros dias ni siquiera creo que exista la posibilidad de sortear esa lectura, pues el Quijote ha pasado a ser un libro mas en los estantes de una libreria invisible, una referencia lejana y fantasmal para los adolescentes. Por eso resulta profundamente interesante y sugestiva la propuesta de Juan

Carlos Gonzalez Faraco, que, de un lado, traza una revision de las relaciones que la pedagogia ha ido estableciendo con el libro de Cervantes y, de otro, se plantea otro modo de recuperar esa lectura como parte de un nuevo proyecto educativo. Desde las inercias de la investigacion cervantina, no pocas veces olvidamos que, mas alla de las disquisiciones eruditas, la vida real de un libro esta en sus lectores y que, cuando no los haya, el cervantismo no tendra sentido: se convertira poco menos que en la diseccion de un cadaver inexistente.

En Il cavaliere errante. La poetica educativa di Don Chisciotte se suma el esfuerzo intelectual de explicar la historia del Quijote como instrumento pedagogico y la voluntad de construir un discurso gozoso en torno a la lectura. Asi lo indica el propio autor: "Il mio proposito e di fare un'analisi comparata di questi testi ali'interno di un percorso narrativo che ci conduce a porci delle domande sul capolavoro di Cervantes ele sue letture pedagogiche all'inizio del secolo XXI. Ma anche ad immaginare altre possibili letture educative per il nostro tempo della cosiddetta tarda modernita che, a mio giudizio, dovranno essere preferibilmente antipedagogiche" (p. 43).

Esta perspectiva renovada y fresca en torno ai libro se inicia con unas paginas sobre los modos de lectura en la escuela, baio el epigrafe de "De Lectione: un lettore appassionato."La idea ultima a la que Gonzalez Faraco quiere llevarnos es la de que no cabe distincion --al menos, no debe haberla-- entre la lectura educativa y la libre, pues, en cuestiones de amor, de poco o nada vale la imposicion. De ahi que acuda a la sabia pregunta que George Steiner ponia sobre la mesa en Extraterritorial: "Per quanti lettori italiani, inglesi o tedeschi, opere come la Divina Commedia, Il paradisoperduto o la seconda parte del Faust costituiscono un'esperienza personale e non un'esperienza di comune riferimento?." Desde luego, para pocos. Por eso hay que tratar de poner al lector joven --el mas fragil, pero el mas imprescindible-- en la tension de experimentar una pasion radical frente al libro mismo, dejando de lado las construcciones teoricas y eruditas: "Il buon maestro di lettura deve liberare il libro dalrorpello 'teologico' che lo assedia, lo imbavaglia e lo 'spiega', deve lasciarlo nella sua primitiva testualita, nell'intemperie nella quale fu composto, per favorire il rincontro del lettore con l'atto poetico primordiale, perche la sua awentura come lettore si alimenti non di quel tempo, che gia non e, ma dell'alito, delremozione e del coraggio che accompagnarono lo scrittore" (p. 27).

Es en esta seccion donde comienza a establecerse una interesantisima conexion que se ira plasmando a lo largo de todo el libro. Me refiero a los lazos que Gonzalez Faraco tiende entre Cervantes y el escritor cubano Reinaldo Arenas y su concepcion de la literatura, que hace de cada uno de nosotros seres potencialmente literarios: "Siamo quello che Omero narro, siamo le buffe battaglie di Don Chisciotte, i sogni e gli incubi di Shakespeare" (p. …

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