Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Rural Youth

By Pate, Russell R.; Trost, Stewart G. et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, September 1997 | Go to article overview

Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Rural Youth


Pate, Russell R., Trost, Stewart G., Felton, Gwen M., Ward, Dianne S., Dowda, Marsha, Saunders, Ruth, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Most of the premature death and disability in the United States can be attributed to chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, type II diabetes, cancer, and obesity (McGinnis & Foege, 1993). Although these diseases typically do not manifest before middle adulthood, many experts recommend that efforts to prevent chronic disease be directed toward children and adolescents (Simons-Morton, O'Hara, Simons-Morton, & Parcel, 1987; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990). These recommendations have been based on the knowledge that the pathogenic processes that lead to chronic disease can begin early in life (Pate & Blair, 1978; Williams, Carter, & Wynder, 1981).

Physical inactivity is a well established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Fletcher et al., 1996) and epidemiological studies published over the past decade suggest that inactivity is also associated with increased risk for several other chronic diseases (Pate et al., 1995). Regular participation in physical activity has long been recognized as essential to normal development in children (American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Sports Medicine and School Health, 1987; American College of Sports Medicine, 1988), and in recent years, promotion of physical activity in children and adolescents has become a recognized goal of public health authorities. An expert panel recently recommended that adolescent youth accumulate at least 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity daily and complete at least three bouts of continuous, moderate-to-vigorous exercise on a weekly basis (Sallis & Patrick, 1994). These recommendations are consistent with the physical activity objectives for adolescents included in Healthy People 2000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990).

National surveys conducted over the past decade have consistently observed that substantial percentages of U.S. adolescents fail to meet the aforementioned physical activity objectives (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1992; Ross & Gilbert, 1985). For example, a recent analysis of data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that 51.4% of boys and 76.3% of girls failed to achieve the recommendation for participation in vigorous physical activity (Heath, Pratt, Warren, & Kann, 1994). Such findings underscore the need for physical activity intervention programs for children and adolescents.

To maximize the effectiveness of these programs, it is important to understand the demographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors that influence physical activity behavior in youth. Analyses of national survey data as well as other studies have shown age and gender to be important determinants of physical activity behavior in youth (Pate, Long, & Heath, 1994; Sallis, 1993); however, considerably less is known about the more modifiable psychosocial and environmental determinants of physical activity behavior. Indeed, a national consensus panel recently concluded that identifying the determinants of physical activity behavior in youth was a research priority (Sallis et al., 1992). Furthermore, because chronic disease morbidity and mortality are known to be disproportionately high among minority populations (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994), it seems particularly important to investigate the determinants of a key health behavior such as physical activity in African American youth. However, to date, much of the determinants research has been restricted to samples of predominantly white children living in urban settings. To fill this void in the research literature, the purpose of this study was to examine an array of potential demographic, psychosocial, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a group of fifth-grade students residing in rural, predominantly African American communities.

Methods

Participants

All 558 fifth-grade students in two rural counties of South Carolina were invited to participate in the study. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Rural Youth
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.