Street Youth, Their Peer Group Affiliation and Differences According to Residential Status, Subsistence Patterns, and Use of Services

By Kipke, Michele D.; Unger, Jennifer B. et al. | Adolescence, Fall 1997 | Go to article overview

Street Youth, Their Peer Group Affiliation and Differences According to Residential Status, Subsistence Patterns, and Use of Services


Kipke, Michele D., Unger, Jennifer B., O'Connor, Susan, Palmer, Raymond F., LaFrance, Steven R., Adolescence


One of the most significant milestones of adolescence is the development of complex social and problem-solving skills, moral judgment, and social values which are acquired, in part, through interpersonal relationships with peers (Hartup, 1983). Adolescence is a time marked by increasing reliance on peers for the support which had previously been provided by family (Douvan & Adelson, 1966). It is a time of exploration as the teenager searches for friends who will be loyal and trustworthy, and who will demonstrate potential for positive regard, admiration, and similarity (Bigelow, 1977; Parker & Gottman, 1989; Hoffman, Ushpiz, & Levy-Shiff, 1988; Rice, 1978; Steinberg & Silverberg, 1985). It is also a time when peer conformity increases and greater importance is ascribed to being accepted as a member of a clique or social group (Berndt, 1979; Rice, 1978). Styles of dress, hairstyles, music interests, speech and language use, activities, and values are among the social characteristics teenagers appear to learn from their contact with peers. Peers also provide adolescents with the opportunity to experiment with new behaviors and adult social roles in a context that facilitates the development of self-identity and a sense of self-worth (Bemporad, 1982).

Peer relationships and social support have been demonstrated to be directly related to social competence, self-esteem, and overall well-being (Barrera, 1981; Cauce, Feiner, & Primavera, 1982; Compas, Slavin, Wagner, & Wannatta, 1986) and as buffers against the effects of stress (Licitra-Kleckler & Waas, 1993). Conversely, teenagers may encounter adjustment problems either because they have been rejected by their peers or because they have learned to engage in socially inappropriate or deviant activities. Although the role of peer influence remains unclear, several studies have found that adolescents who smoke cigarettes, use alcohol and other drugs, and have sex, usually have friends who engage in these same behaviors (Dinges & Oetting, 1993; Ennett & Bauman, 1993; Konopka, 1983; Newcomb & Bentler, 1989; Oetting & Beauvais, 1986). Other research has sought to define what constitutes a peer group in an effort to identify which features of peer relationships influence both positive and negative behaviors. Brown (1989) classified peer groups into three types: crowds, cliques, and dyads. Crowds are reputation-based groups of similarly stereotyped individuals. Cliques are smaller groups that allow more intimate or private interactions. Dyads are pairs of individuals best characterized as close friends. Crowds are characterized by the primary activities or attitudes its members espouse. For example, "jocks" are popular athletes, identified by their athletic abilities and affinity for partying. Adolescents in several studies consistently identified the same crowd types, including "jocks," "druggies," "loners," "normals," "nobodies," and "populars" (Brown, Clasen, & Eicher, 1986). Brown, Eicher, and Petrie (1986) also found that the importance of crowd affiliation varied with the type to which one belongs and with one's position in the crowd. Some crowds place more or less importance on membership. "Jocks-popular" and "druggies-tough" members place significantly greater importance on membership than do "loners."

One group that may be particularly vulnerable to the potential negative influences of their peers is inner-city street youth. They are largely out-of-school and unemployed youth, with many involved in the juvenile justice system, are runaways or homeless, gang involved, undocumented, and/or involved in drug dealing and street prostitution. These youth are believed to be on the streets for myriad reasons; for example, dire poverty in the home which necessitates working on the streets to supplement the family income; rejection by parents or guardians; violence in the home; drug or alcohol use among family members (Bond, Mazin, & Jiminez, 1992).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Street Youth, Their Peer Group Affiliation and Differences According to Residential Status, Subsistence Patterns, and Use of Services
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.