Towards a Comprehensive Learning Object Metadata: Incorporation of Context to Stipulate Meaningful Learning and Enhance Learning Object Reusability

By Yahya, Yazrina; Yusoff, Mohammed | Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, Annual 2008 | Go to article overview

Towards a Comprehensive Learning Object Metadata: Incorporation of Context to Stipulate Meaningful Learning and Enhance Learning Object Reusability


Yahya, Yazrina, Yusoff, Mohammed, Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects


Introduction

Electronic learning is the convergence of the web and learning on all levels that is made up of several learning methods that are enhanced or facilitated by technology. The use of a learning management system (LMS) in e-Learning environments allows content authoring and sequencing, and content delivery to learners. In addition, a LMS also assigns content lessons to learners and records their performance, thus creating a learner's profile. In other words, e-Learning offers a one-location gateway to varieties of educational resources, such as electronic books, digital presentation, web-based lecture notes, case studies, and other types of educational learning materials. This contributes to the rise of digital learning materials in the education field. However, these learning materials need to be designed effectively, as e-Learning promotes online education, unlike the traditional method which emphasizes the face-to-face and instructor-centered way of teaching. In contrast, digital materials need to include multimedia presentation--where words and graphics are used together--to deliver the instruction, to adopt personalization principles, to initiate cognitive processing in learners, and to include practice exercise, as stated by Clark and Mayer (2003).

In brief, designing and developing digital learning materials requires a substantial amount of effort, as the materials need to be well-designed using various media integration that require an allocation of cost. The cost to design and develop digital learning materials is high and extensive and is equivalent to developing traditional materials, because these digital materials need to be built from scratch using textbooks, references, and past experiences as a guide. For instance, to develop web-based lecture notes requires a substantial amount of money, and inclusion of graphics and animation would double the cost, and, if simulation is included, the cost would quadruple (Downes, 2004), which shows that developing interesting and well-designed learning materials involves a substantially large investment.

Consequently, if each educational institution produces its own local materials, the cost would multiply. This is ineffective, as the cost can be reduced by sharing the same learning materials among institutions.

The advent of communication technology has made sharing possible through the use of the Internet, and this leads to the emergence of the learning object (LO) concept. The LO concept was introduced to allow sharing of small, portable learning materials on the Internet. The concept, however, is not new to the world of reusable learning materials. The idea of learning objects had already emerged in the early nineties (Persico, Sarti, & Viarengo, 1992). The concept was then concerned with storing the learning materials into databases. From then on, the issue that emerged was the reuse of learning materials (Olimpo, Chioccariello, Tavella, & Trentin, 1990; Rada, 1995; Sarti & Marcke, 1995). Nevertheless, due to the exponential growth of the World Wide Web, the worldwide availability of easily accessible learning materials sparked the re-emergence of these old concepts in the late nineties, and these concepts are presently being further developed to generate knowledge and insights into storing and retrieving of learning materials.

However, the success of this concept is hindered by problems that arose in the current e-Learning setting. Figure 1 summarizes the current trends in e-Learning environment leading to existing problems in LO matters and points out that there are a few main challenges that need to be addressed in order to ensure the success of LO. As such, this paper focuses on the problems relating to LO metadata contextual and reusability issues. The next section will look at the incorporation of meaningful learning into LO in order to provide context and retrievability of LO. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Towards a Comprehensive Learning Object Metadata: Incorporation of Context to Stipulate Meaningful Learning and Enhance Learning Object Reusability
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.