Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

By Umar, Fatima M. | Journal of Instructional Psychology, June 2009 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?


Umar, Fatima M., Journal of Instructional Psychology


Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early morning to late in the evening when they take buses back to their respective villages after the days sales. This article describes the dangers and problems associated with street hawking.

A World View of the Situation of the Girl-Child

There are sixty-five (65) million girls around the world that are not going to school, and more will only complete a few years of schooling. Majority of them are engaged in the world's third most profitable trade Girl trafficking (after arms and drugs) for various reasons. Some of them are trafficked for the purpose of prostitution, some for child labour (Umar, 2003). For example, between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepalese girls are trafficked every year across the boarders to India. Most end up as sex hawkers in brothels in Bombay and New Delhi. An estimated 200,000 Nepalese women, most of them girls under 18 are sex hawkers in Indian cities.

Girls as young as 13 (mainly from Asia and Eastern Europe) are trafficked as sex workers. These girls are in most cases powerless, isolated and at great risk of violence and infections. A recent UNICEF survey of household in 25 sub-Saharan African countries indicated that thirty-one percent (31%) of children aged between five (5) and four (4) are engaged in the various forms of child labour such as slavery, trafficking and forced recruitment for armed conflicts, prostitution and phonography and other hazardous works that stretch to 43 hours a week in labour that threaten the young girls being.

In another UNICEF study, 246 million children are found to be engaged in child labour. In essence, 1 in every 6 children around the world is forced into child labour. The figure is broken down as follows:

Years                Percentage

5-14 years old      49% of girls
14-18 years         42% of girl

Ninety percent of the large numbers of children are being trafficked in west and central Africa for domestic work and sexual exploitation, to work in shops or farms, or to be employed as street hawkers. In Latin America, child servants are hired to work as domestic servants and also to satisfy the sexual needs of the employer's or their sons. In Peru, another study showed that 60% of men who grew up with a female domestic servant had their first sexual experience with that servant.

Undoubtedly, this situation is the same in Nigeria. We have had loud outcries for the elimination of child trafficking and abuse by governments, non-governmental organisations and individuals. But it is a far cry as it is, an immediate cry that should have been of immediate concern to us is the incessant problem of street hawking by very young girls (more often than not under-aged).

The Girl Child

Now we explore the world of the Girl-Child. Who is she? The Gift Child is normally a young lady in her adolescence. The adolescent age is generally regarded as the most turbulent of human development because it is characterized by physiological and psychological changes. During this period, the Gift Child is often in a dilemma of how to meet societal expectations. Because of the transitional nature of the period from childhood to adulthood, the girl child is sometimes rebuked for behaving like child, and at other times chided for behaving like adults (Umar, 2003).

Akinboye sees adolescence as a period of accelerated growth. This period is heightened by social awareness, and a period when the youngster reaches a maturational stage of primary and secondary sex development that enables her to reproduce her kind. This is a period of storm and stress. It is a period of high emotionality.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?