Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

By Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii | Journal of Employment Counseling, September 2009 | Go to article overview

Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition


Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii, Journal of Employment Counseling


Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and needs to provide appropriate services to transgender individuals. The author conducted a comprehensive review of the literature in the areas of transgender issues in career development and counseling, counseling transgender individuals, gender transition, and multicultural counseling competencies. The role of career development practitioners as advocates for transgender individuals who experience gender transition is discussed.

**********

Equal employment opportunity is created to protect individuals against employment discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, national origin, religion, and disabilities (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [EEOC], 2004). The EEOC governs the federal equal employment opportunity laws prohibiting job discrimination: the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (EEOC, 2004). Federal equal employment opportunity laws also deal with some areas in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and Civil Rights Act of 1964 (EEOC, 2004).

Discrimination based on gender is a concern in the field of career development and counseling (Abel & Meltzer, 2007; Hogue, Yoder, & Singleton, 2007; Schmader, Whitehead, & Wysocki, 2007). Although there are laws to protect disadvantaged groups such as women, ethnic groups, and sexual minorities against employment discrimination, this discrimination is still present in various employment settings. Over the past decades, various literature concerning career- and employment-related issues and career development have suggested that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations suffer from work and employment discrimination (Anastas, 1998; Badgett, Lau, Sears, & Ho, 2007; Chung, 1995, 2003; Croteau, 1996; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2002; Irwin, 2002). Sexual identity disclosure in the workplace, work discrimination, and coping strategies for such discrimination are areas of concerns for LGB populations (Boatwright, Gilbert, Forrest, & Ketzenberger, 1996; Chung, 2003).

Issues associated with gender identity, expression, and transition can cause a great deal of distress and desperation for individuals. These challenges lead transgender individuals to have unique needs in career counseling, such as complexities in workplace adjustment throughout gender transition. However, career development practitioners seem unprepared and unskilled to assist transgender individuals in career- and employment-related issues (Chung, 2003; Pepper & Lorah, 2008; Sangganjanavanich, 2005).

There has been a call for social justice in the field of counseling and career development over the past few years. According to the American Counseling Association (2005), as a profession, ethical standards inform and require counselors to be multiculturally competent in their services as well as to further serve as advocates in social justice for their clients. The National Career Development Association (2007) has similar standards to inform career development practitioners in providing services to diverse populations in multiculturally competent ways. Multicultural competencies have been identified as one of the key domains of professional competencies. Multicultural career counseling continues to be an ongoing theme in the career development profession (Chope, 2008). As professionals, career development practitioners need to practice multicultural career development counseling with the clients they serve.

Literature concerning career development and related issues of transgender individuals is limited.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.