The Effects of Two Types of Relaxation Training on Students' Levels of Anxiety

By Rasid, Zulkifli Mohamed; Parish, Thomas S. | Adolescence, Spring 1998 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Two Types of Relaxation Training on Students' Levels of Anxiety


Rasid, Zulkifli Mohamed, Parish, Thomas S., Adolescence


Findings from several studies (Hill & Sarason, 1966; Lunneburg, 1964; Sarason, 1975) have shown that high anxiety has adverse effects on student learning. Though anxiety may be an unavoidable part of life, May (1977) points out that it can be reduced, and several researchers have developed approaches to reduce anxiety. In the present study, two of these approaches, behavioral relaxation training (Schilling & Poppen, 1983) and progressive muscle relaxation training (Bernstein & Borkovec, 1973) were examined to determine which approach, if either, fosters lower state and trait anxiety in male and female high school students. These approaches were compared with one another, as 'well. as with a no-treatment control group.

METHOD

Eighty-eight high school students originally volunteered to participate, though only 55 (26 males and 29 females) actually completed all phases. There were 18 students in the behavioral relaxation group (Group 1; 9 males and 9 females), 20 students in the progressive relaxation group (Group 2; 9 males and 11 females), and 17 students in the no-treatment control group (8 males and 9 females). All training was done for Groups I and 2 via videotaped instructions of the appropriate relaxation technique. A male and a female counseling intern alternated as the therapist and the client in the videotapes. The students were seated in a large auditorium and asked to imitate the different exercises demonstrated by the client in the videotape. Both Groups 1 and 2 completed four 20-minute training sessions :in two weeks. The day after the last treatments were administered to Groups 1 and 2, all three groups were asked to complete the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Regarding state anxiety scores, a 3 x 2 analysis of variance revealed a significant treatment effect, F(2, 49) = 5.99, p [less than] .005, but no significant gender effect, F(1,49) = 1.66, p [greater than] .05, nor a significant interaction effect, F(2, 49) = 1.80, p [greater than] .05. A Tukey post hoc analysis found that the state anxiety scores for Group 1 (mean = 37.33) and Group 2 (mean = 37.75) did not vary significantly from one another, but were both significantly lower than the state anxiety scores for the students in the no-treatment group (mean = 44.53). Regarding trait anxiety scores, a 3 x 2 analysis of variance failed to reveal any significant differences as a function of treatment, F(2, 49) = 0.61, p [greater than] .05, students' gender, F(1, 49) = 0.00, p [greater than] .05, or the interaction between these two variables, F(2, 49) = 0.92, p [greater than] .05.

These findings indicate that both the behavioral relaxation approach and the progressive relaxation approach are capable of helping high school students reduce their state anxiety. Notably, Lasselle and Russell (1993) reported that progressive relaxation had been placed on a list of techniques that high school counselors could use with their students in group counseling, but that behavioral relaxation failed to be included as an option. In light of the findings here, however, it would seem appropriate to include the latter approach, too, as a possible therapeutic procedure that could be used effectively in group counseling, especially when the goal is to :reduce students' state anxiety. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Two Types of Relaxation Training on Students' Levels of Anxiety
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.