Parental Social Position, Body Image, and Other Psychosocial Determinants and First Sexual Intercourse among 15- and 16-Year Olds
Valle, Ann-Karin, Roysamb, Espen, Sundby, Johanne, Klepp, Knut Inge, Adolescence
The fact that early first sexual intercourse and sexual and reproductive health risks are associated is well established (Santelli, Lowry, Brener, & Robin, 2000); Valle, Torgersen, Roysamb, Klepp, & Thelle, 2005; Wellings et al., 2001; Wright, Abraham, & Scott, 1998). Early first sexual intercourse is associated with increased risk of teenage pregnancy (Adler & Hendrick, 1991) and sexually transmitted infections (Henderson et al., 2002); Santelli et al., 2000; Santelli, Speizer, Avery, & Kendall, 2006). While a range of social and individual level factors have been shown to be associated with first sexual intercourse (Petersen, Samuelsen, & Wichstrom, 2003; Paul, Fitzjohn, Herbison, & Dickson, 2000b), few studies have investigated its relationship to body image (Goodson, Buhi, & Dunsmore, 2006).
Early to mid-adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development, and increased attention to body image may be expected. Numerous studies have investigated body image in relation to eating disorders; however, the relationship between body image and first sexual intercourse has been studied to a lesser extent (Goodson et al., 2006). Body image is influenced by a multitude of factors (Cash & Prutzinsky, 2002) and constitutes a central part of self development and identity formation. Levine and Smolak found that body image, defined as the perception of physical appearance, including emphasis on weight concerns, was probably the most important component of global self-esteem in adolescents (Levine & Smolak, 2002). Similarities between American youth and Norwegian youth on the relative importance of body-self has also been established (Wichstrom, 1997). Body image has been associated with aspects of psychosocial health, such as depressed moods (Holsen, Kraft, & Roysamb, 2001); Haavet, Dalen, & Straand, 2006; Haavet, Sangstad, & Straand, 2005; Oppedal & Roysamb, 2004; Siegel, Yancey, Aneshensel, & Schuler, 1999), also among Norwegian youth (Holsen et al., 2001; Wichstrom, 1999). Body image is often defined as a mental representation of the body, including perceptions of appearance, feelings, and thoughts about the body. Body image is also modulated by local culture (McArthur, Holbert, & Pena, 2005). Abuse experiences can have a number of negative effects on body image (Fallon & Ackard, 2002; Kearney-Cooke & Ackard, 2000). Body image has also been found to be associated with social support (Cash & Fleming, 2002). A protector of positive body image development is social support from family (Kearney-Cooke, 2002), peers Tantleff-Dunn & Gokee, 2002), and friends (Levine & Smolak, 2002). Parental monitoring has been found to be a protective factor in avoiding sexually risky behavior (Henderson et al., 2002; Valle et al., 2005; Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008). Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that social support is associated with first sexual intercourse among youth (Henderson et al., 2002; Paul, Fitzjohn, Herbison, & Dickson, 2000a). However, there is a lack of information regarding first sexual intercourse and body image (Wiederman, 2000). It seems that despite considerable research into factors associated with adolescent sexuality, there are inconclusive findings on first sexual intercourse and associations with body image; more rigorous methodology for future research is recommended (Goodson et al., 2006; Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008).
Social position has previously been shown to be associated with future education plans as well as with sexual behavior (Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008; Valle et al., 2005). Parental social position and its associations with first sexual intercourse is established in most western countries (Santelli et al., 2000; Valle et al., 2005) while some controversies remain regarding sexual debut (Kraft, 1991; Paul et al., 2000a; Pedersen et al., 2003; Sundet, Magnbus, Kvalem, Samuelsen, & Bakketeig, 1992). There is a need to better understand social context and individual level dynamics as they relate to sexual behavior. Social class variations in body image has also been found (Jackson, 2002; Thompson & van den Berg, 2002), as have ethnic differences (Grogan, 2008; Siegel et al., 1999). In a previous study of youth in Oslo, an interaction between gender, ethnicity, and sexual debut was observed (Valle et al., 2005).
Data on how self-concepts, such as body image and future educational plans, on the one hand, and social support on the other, may mediate variations in first sexual intercourse by the various indicators of parental social position seems to be lacking. Both conceptual and methodological considerations lead to a number of concerns about measurements of social class or parental social position in studies of adolescents (Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand (2008).
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between first sexual intercourse and body image, future educational plans, depressed moods, as well as the influence of parental education and income on first sexual intercourse. These associations were tested by gender and ethnicity and adjusted for variables likely to affect the findings, as perceived social support, sexual abuse, and age.
The Oslo Youth Health Survey was a collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, the University of Oslo, and the Municipality of Oslo. The study includes all 10th graders of all schools in Oslo in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Of the 8,316 eligible students, 7,343 adolescents participated (88.3%; 86.1% for boys; 90.6% for girls) through self-administered questionnaires during school time. Ethical research clearance was obtained for the entire survey from The Norwegian Data Inspectorate as well as the relevant Medical Ethical Committees. In addition, clearance for the linking of youth data and parental register-information was obtained from The Norwegian Data Inspectorate. More detailed information is presented elsewhere (Haavet et al., 2006). Our study excluded those who did not report gender (n = 36) or age (n = 28), as well as those under 15 years of age (n = 20) or over 16 (n = 72). Thus, the sample employed consisted of 7,187 students; 3,544 (49.4%) boys and 3,643 (50.6%) girls.
First sexual intercourse. The question was: "Have you ever had sexual intercourse?" The answer categories were (a) "Yes, with one partner," (b) "Yes, with several partners," and (c) "No." The following open-ended question was: "What was your age the first time?" The dependent variable was organized into a dichotomous variable, having had first sexual intercourse, yes or no.
Social Level Independent Variables
Parental education and income. Information on parental education and income was obtained from the Personal Register of Statistics Norway. The student-questionnaire data were linked to the parental data registry, and were encrypted to ensure confidentiality. The parents' total income was included in a five-level classification of net income (Table 1). This classification is based on Statistics Norways' report on family income of 2001. (Currency approximates: I EURO = 8.35 NOK = 1.34100 U.S. dollars 2001 rates.)
Statistics Norway's definition of ethnicity was used (i.e., ethnic minorities were defined as those with both parents born in non-Western countries. (Among youth with both parents born outside Norway, 4,9% were from Western countries (i.e., other Nordic countries, Western Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand); 8,9% were from Eastern Europe; 22.8% from North Africa and the Middle East; 10.5% from Sub-Saharan Africa, 10.5% from East Asia and the Pacific, and 42.4% from the Indian Sub-continent, from which Pakistan was the country with the largest proportion of minority youth in Oslo (Kumar, Holmboe-Ottesen, Lien, & Wandel, 2004). For the purposes of this study, the students from Western countries were included among the Ethic Norwegians, while all other were included among the ethnic minority group.
Individual Level Independent Variables
Future education plans. Participants were asked "What is the highest education you plan to complete?" Response categories included six options from "higher university degrees" to the very first "ten years of obligatory basic education," as well as "other" and "not yet decided." The scale has previously been used by Norwegian Social Research (Valle et al., 2005) and has been validated on a Norwegian student sample.
Body image. Three questions were included in a body-image index: (a) "How satisfied are you with your weight?" Answer categories ranging from 1 = "too high weight" to 5 = "too low weight"; (b) "I care about my weight" with three response categories: 1 = "agree," 2 = "agree somewhat", and 3 = "do not agree"; and (c) "Have you ever tried to lose weight?" The response alternatives were: 1 = "No, never," 2 "Yes, previously," 3 = "Yes, now," and 4 = "Yes, all the time." A body image index was developed and standardized. High scores on the body image index indicate body-image dissatisfaction or overweight concerns. Low scores indicate either no body image dissatisfaction/no overweight concern, or concern with being too small. The Cronbach reliability coefficient for this index was [alpha] = 0.70.
Depressed moods. This ten-item measure was originally derived from the Johns Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90, Strand BH, Dalgard OS, Tambs K & M, 2003) restricting the ratings to the preceding week and applying a 4-point scale, with 4 = "Very much troubled" to 1 = "not at all troubled" in response to mental moods such as: "feeling unhappy, sad, or depressed." These items were combined into a scale, retaining the original scale range for depressed moods as used in several youth studies from this survey (Lien, Dalard, Heyerdahl, Thoresen, & Bjertness, 2006) (Cronbach [alpha] = 0.81).
Sexual abuse. "Did you during the last 12 months experience any of the following?" "Sexual abuse (for example: involuntarily touched in a sexual manner, involuntary sexual intercourse)" The answer options were 1 = "yes" and 2 = "no."
Social support. Perceived social support from family (Cronbach [alpha] = 0.85), Friends (Cronbach [alpha] = 0.83), Teachers (Cronbach [alpha] = 0.84), and fellow Classmates (Cronbach [alpha] = 0.86) were all assessed by 4 items, with the exception of Family, which was a 5-item measure. All items were measured on a 4-point scale, from 4 = "Fully agree" to 1 = "Do not at all agree" (Oppedal & Roysamb, 2004).
Chi-square, t-tests, ANOVA, and Pearson correlations coefficients were calculated to assess bivariate relationships between debut and the independent variables. Simple logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relation between sexual debut and parental education and income, age, and ethnicity. Finally, simple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relation between sexual debut and individual level factors, including body image, depressed moods, future self, social support, and sexual abuse, followed by multivariate logistic regression to adjust for ethnicity, age, and other individual variables, as well as fathers' education (as the selected parental social position indicator).
Overall, about a fifth of the adolescents sampled (20.4%) reported having had their sexual debut (Table 1). Descriptive characteristics of the independent variables are presented in Table 1 A-B.
Table 2 A-B show associations between having experienced first sexual intercourse and the various social level factors, where age as a basic demographic factor is also included. Model 1 presents results from the crude logistic regression analysis. Model 2 presents results from the multivariate analysis adjusting for ethnicity, while Model 3 includes adjustment for ethnicity, age, and all individual-level variables. For both boys and girls, those with parents of lower education are more likely to have had sexual debut. For boys, this finding is seen for associations with both fathers' and mothers' education, as well as for household income. For girls, the results are significant only for fathers' education and for one of the lower-level income groups in Model 3. When performing these analyses for ethnic Norwegian youth only, the observed associations are more apparent for both genders, but particularly for girls (data not shown).
Tables 3A (boys) and 3B (girls) present the associations between having had first sexual intercourse and the various individual-level factors. The first column shows bivariate tests by chi-square tests, t-tests, and ANOVA one-way tests. The second column, Model 1, shows the crude logistic regression, the third column, Model 2, as in Tables 2A-B, presents multivariate logistic regression adjusting for ethnicity, while the fourth column, Model 3, adjusts for all other individual-level variables, age, and fathers' education in addition to ethnicity. Body Image has significant associations with having had first sexual intercourse for girls, also in Model 3. For girls, those with high scores on the body image scale were more likely to have had their first sexual intercourse than were girls with low scores. For boys, similar associations are seen in Models 1 and 2, but this association is not significant in Model 3. Future aspirations concerning higher education is associated with less likelihood of having had first sexual intercourse than is future aspirations of a vocational study program during high school. Sexual abuse during the last 12 months increases the likelihood of having had first sexual intercourse. Social support from family and teachers is also associated with less likelihood of having had first sexual intercourse, whereas those with low family and teacher support from friends, are more likely to have had first sexual intercourse. Depressed moods are associated with having had first sexual intercourse for both boys and girls in that higher scores indicate a greater likelihood.
The main findings of this study indicate a strong and consistent association between body image and having had first sexual intercourse among girls, also when adjusting for other, potentially confounding variables. For boys this association is no longer significant when taking into account other individual-level variables such as sexual abuse, depressed moods, future self, and father's education. These are new findings; previous literature is limited and unclear (Goodson et al., 2006). Since body image is likely to influence sexual interaction as well as be shaped by sexual experiences, one may assume that a positive body image increases the likelihood of sexual interaction (Cash & Fleming, 2002). To the contrary, results of this study indicate that among 15- and 16-year-old girls, negative body image and early debut are associated. Previous studies have indicated that how attractive you are perceived by a potential partner increases the likelihood of sexual debut. During the vulnerable period of early and mid-adolescence there may be substantial discrepancies regarding how attractive others perceive a young girl and how the young girl sees herself (Levine & Smolak, 2002). These findings show that a negative body image increases the likelihood of having had first sexual intercourse. Furthermore, we found that sexual abuse has a strong and consistent association with experience of first sexual intercourse for both genders, which is consistent with previous findings (Fallon & Ackard, 2002), as does higher scores on depressed moods (Pedersen et al., 2003; Valle et al., 2005). First sexual intercourse during early or mid-adolescence is more often associated with factors of concern than is sexual debut later in adolescence (Pedersen et al., 2003; Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008). As supported by other studies, high scores on future education plans is protective for both genders (Valle et al., 2005). Protective factors such as social support, matter in various ways. Both genders tend to be less likely to have had their first intercourse if they feel support from family and teachers, as consistent with previous findings (Henderson et al., 2002; Paul et al., 2000b; Valle et al., 2005); those that are lacking such support but have support from friends, may be more likely to have early debut the latter to a lesser extent as previously documented (Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008).
Consistent with previous studies we found that parental education predicts variations in adolescents' first sexual intercourse. This study, however, offers better data than most school-based studies since we also had access to register information on parental education and income. The likelihood of reporting sexual debut among 15- and 16-year olds is higher among adolescents whose parents have primary or secondary education compared to those with a college and university education. To some extent, there are similar findings for parental income. The findings are less clear among ethnic minority youth. Our findings reveal that parental education is a good predictor for social stratification when adolescents' sexual debut is the outcome.
Social class variations in sexual debut are well established. It has been argued that youth, in contrast to childhood or adulthood, is characterized more by the absence of social class variations in health (Piko & Fitzpatrick, 2001; West, 1997). Although some studies argue that social class variations in adolescent health may be underestimated in certain areas, it also applies when it comes to sexual health (Valle et al., 2005). Sexual health seems to be one area of youth health where findings on social class variations have been more consistent, although there is still some controversy. There is research that questions the association between social class and sexual debut (Sundet et al., 1992; West, 1997; Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008) as well as research that confirms such association (Valle et al., 2005; Zimmer-Gembeck & Helfand, 2008). In an Oslo study from 1996, we found social class variation in sexual debut among 16-year-olds, using parental occupation as the parental social position variable, a different pattern between genders, and in multivariate analysis traditional gradient associations became clearer for girls, whereas a different pattern was found for boys, and the association with social class were weakened for boys in multivariate analysis. The 1996 study used youth-reported parental occupation, not registers information, and studied 16-year-olds exclusively. This is in contrast to this study, where the majority of youth are 15 years of age and younger, which indicates that immediate comparisons are problematic. This indicates a need to use more rigorous methodology, following individuals over time, and including register information on parental occupation. In addition, gender differences in maternal higher education as a protective factor may be of particular interest in future studies on mid-adolescent boys.
From a sociocultural perspective, research indicates that social context and culture define what constitutes an attractive body (Jackson, 2002). The closer body self-perception comes to the cultural ideal, the higher self-ratings for body attractiveness should be, or be lower on body dissatisfaction. Thus, body image depends on the social context and cultural ideals and how an individual perceives his or her own body in relation to these ideals. Variations in western cultures support the sociocultural perspective (Jackson, 2002). Among youth, low weight or preference for being thin is the focus in several areas of the world (McArthur, 2005).
Girls place a higher value on their physical appearance than do boys (Siegel et al., 1999). At the same time, their satisfaction with their own looks is poorer than that of boys, which is consistent with other studies (Wichstrom, 1999; Goodson et al., 2006). Thus, there may be a larger discrepancy between the ideal self and the real self. Perceptions of our own and others' appearance is shaped and developed in a socio-cultural context (Cash & Prutzinsky, 2002). The fact that girls with a higher level of overweight concern also have a higher probability of early sexual debut, may indicate that early debut may be conformation-seeking behavior. That is, the need for feeling acceptance and approval make some more vulnerable to sexual intimacy perhaps before they actually feel ready. Since this is a cross-sectional study, this cannot be confirmed, and longitudinal studies would be needed.
Body image is affected by sexual abuse in that it increases negative body image among girls (Treuer, Koperdak, Rozsa, & Furedi, 2005). Abuse that occurs at any point in time can have negative effects on body image development. When abuse occurs during critical stages of normal body image development, such as during early adolescence, it interferes with the individual's ability to attain a stable concept of self and body (Fallon & Ackard, 2002). The association between early debut and sexual abuse and early debut and body image concern, may therefore be of particular interest to sexual health promotion interventions among youth.
Strengths and Limitations of the Study
This study employs a large sample of 15- 16-year-old students in the city of Oslo, using official taxable income data of both parents. This avoided the problem of validity that arises when relying only on the adolescents' reporting of family income (Liberatos, Link, & Kelsey, 1988; Lien, Jacobs, & Klepp, 2002). However, our cross-sectional design prevented us from drawing conclusions regarding the temporal relationship between early first sexual intercourse and body image.
A weight-related body image may affect girls' self-concept more than it does boys' (Furnham, Badmin, & Sneade, 2002). Boys generally are in the process of building their muscles and their body focus may be different from that of girls (Levine & Smolak, 2002; McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2004). This study does not take the state of puberty into account since its timing is not consistently correlated with body dissatisfaction, nor has it been shown to consistently predict negative body image in middle or late adolescence (Levine & Smolak, 2002). To the extent that gender differences are noted, early puberty in males seems to lead to a more positive body image, whereas early puberty in females leads to negative sexual attention/sexual harassment and greater negative body image (Levine & Smolak, 2002). It is therefore not likely that including puberty would have reduced gender differences.
Girls' development through the stages of puberty is associated with increased body mass, a more negative body image, and a greater striving for thinness (Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002; Schwartz & Brownell, 2002). Boys are increasingly more preoccupied with avoiding overweight (Schwartz & Brownell, 2002; McArthur et al., 2005) but they are equally or more focused on gaining muscle mass and thereby also on gaining weight (Olivardia, 2002). It is therefore likely that body image constructs that focus on weight do not adequately reflect boys body image concerns (Corson & Andersen, 2002). The finding that parental social position's association with sexual debut is little influenced by individual-level variables indicates that structural factors and individual-level factors have independent meanings that need to be addressed in intervention research. At the same time, complex inter-relationships between the social- and individual-level variables may not be sufficiently understood, and also need further investigation. Ethnicity divided into only two groups is a crude measure of ethnic background since ethnic minority groups are very heterogeneous (Grogan, 2008). Further studies are needed to investigate causal patterns.
The findings of this study suggest that variations in sexual behavior are associated with parental education and income, specifically to having first sexual intercourse among 15- and 16-year-olds. These factors have an independent effect even when controlling for potential psychosocial mediators, including social support. Body image, which is both a mental health and a social phenomenon, does have an independent effect for mid-adolescent girls. The socially constructed body dissatisfaction among young women in particular may be normative and a systematic social phenomenon more than a function of individual mental health, which is of high public health interest. Hence, interventions to improve body image among youth may be as important at the social structural levels as it is at the individual level. Further investigation, employing prospective research designs, into various aspects of body image and sexual behavior is needed among both girls and boys.
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This article was supported in part by a grant from the Norwegian Research Council and in part by The Norwegian Women's Public Health Association. The youth health study was funded by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in collaboration with The University of Ohio and the Municipality of Oslo. Data collection was conducted by the same collaborating partners. The authors gratefully acknowledge Magne Thoresen, Associate Professor, Department of Medical statistics and University of Oslo and Brit Oppedal, researcher at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for their comments on earlier drafts of this paper.
Espen Roysamb, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, Oslo, and Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Mental Health.
Johanne Sundby, University of Ohio, Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, Section for International health, Oslo.
Knut Inge Klepp, University of Oslo, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo.
Reprint requests should be sent to Ann-Karin Valle, University of Oslo, Department of General Practice and Community Medicine. Section for Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology. P.O. Box 1130 Blindern, N-0317 also E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1a Descriptive Sample Characteristics (1) of 15 and 16 year olds (N=7187): The Oslo Youth Survey Boys Girls N % N % 3544 49.3 3643 50.7 Age 15 years 2089 58.9 2222 61.0 16 years 1455 41.1 1421 39.0 Ethnicity: Norwegian 2721 78.3 2799 77.8 Minority (2) 756 21.7 800 22.2 Father's education Primary Education 418 18.3 421 14.4 Secondary Education 1267 43.7 1257 42.9 Lower University 682 23.5 725 24.7 Higher University 531 14.4 529 18.0 Mother's education Primary Education 490 16.3 468 15.1 Secondary Education 1303 43.3 1378 44.4 Lower University 941 31.3 983 31.7 Higher University 277 9.2 272 8.8 Household income (NOK) (3) Lowest--220 000 310 9.6 283 8.6 220-340 000 640 27.2 659 20.1 340-460 000 999 31.0 998 35.1 460-580 000 697 21.6 701 21.4 580.000 + 575 17.9 632 19.3 (1) Oslo Youth Health Survey 2000/2001 N varies as missing values varies (2) Minority background both parents born in non-western country. Statistics Norway's definition. (3) Currency approximates: 1 EURO = 8.35 NOK = 1.34100 U.S. dollars. Table 1b Descriptive Sample Characteristics (1) of 15 and 16 year old youth: The Oslo Youth Survey Individual characteristics Boys Girls N % N % 3544 49.3 3643 50.7 1st sexual intercourse by age 10-12 years 55 1.6 21 0.6 13 years 87 2.5 59 1.7 14 years 228 6.4 251 7.1 15 years 312 8.8 364 7.4 16 years 44 1.3 49 1.4 Total 726 20.6 744 21.0 Sexual abuse during last 12 months Yes 64 1.8 222 6.2 No 3427 98.2 3367 93.8 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 1351 38.8 1368 38.0 Univ./college lower or intermediate 505 14.5 653 18.1 High school academic 217 6.2 212 5.9 Vocational study program 803 23.1 630 17.5 Other and Basics or 10th grade only 152 4.4 127 3.5 Do not know 454 13.0 611 17.0 Psychosocial well-being Mean SD Mean SD Body image -0.33 0.59 0.32 0.82 Depressed moods (range 1-4) 1.33 0.40 1.62 0.55 Social support Mean SD Mean SD Family 3.30 0.63 3.25 0.69 Friends 2.52 0.51 2.68 0.45 Classmates 2.09 0.68 1.99 7.16 Teachers 1.90 7.77 1.92 0.74 (1) Oslo Youth Health Survey 2000/2001 (2) (3) Minority background defined based on Statistics Norway's definition. both parents born m non-western country. Table 2A Boys Associations between reported 1st sexual int. and social level predictors: The Oslo Youth Survey Proportions reporting exp, of 1st sexual intercourse Model 1 n % p-Value OR CI Age 15 years 409 20.1 p<0.001 0.73 0.62-0.86 16 years 361 25.5 1 Ethnicity Ethnic Norwegian 578 21.3 p<0.05 1 Ethnic Minority 189 25.4 1.25 1.03-1.52 Fathers education Primary education 124 29.9 p<0.001 2.81 2.01-3.91 Secondary education 296 23.5 2 1.49-2.64 Lower University 133 19.6 1.55 1.13-2.13 Higher University 70 13.3 1 Mothers education Primary education 125 25.9 p<0.001 2.62 1.72-4.00 Secondary education 333 25.8 2.55 1.73-3.77 Lower University 175 18.6 1.68 1.12-2.51 Higher University 32 11.7 1 Household income Lowest--220.000 86 28.3 p<0.001 2.02 1.44-2.83 220-340.000 158 25.4 1.72 1.29-2.30 340-460.000 238 23.9 1.61 1.23-2.10 460-580.0110 134 19.4 1.21 0.90-1.62 580.000 + 96 16.6 1 Model 2 Model 3 OR CI OR CI Age 15 years 0.74 0.63-0.87 0.71 0.58-0.87 16 years 1 1 Ethnicity Ethnic Norwegian Ethnic Minority Fathers education Primary education 2.72 1.92-3.86 2.07 1.40-3.06 Secondary education 1.99 1.48-2.66 1.59 1.76-2.19 Lower University 1.57 1.14-2.17 1.44 1.02-2.03 Higher University 1 1 Mothers education Primary education 2.44 1.57-3.82 1.96 1.20-3.21 Secondary education 2.57 1.73-3.82 1.97 1.28-3.04 Lower University 1.71 1.13-2.57 1.56 1.00-2.14 Higher University l Household income Lowest--220.000 1.77 1.10-2.82 1.69 1.12-2.54 220-340.000 1.45 1.02-2.06 1.35 1.00-1.90 340-460.000 1.30 0.97-1.74 1.37 1.01-1.84 460-580.0110 1.10 0.81-1.50 1.11 0.81-1.52 580.000 + 1 Model 1 Simple logistic regression Associations between 1st sex and social level predictors Model 2 Multivariate log regression Adjusted for ethnicity Mode1 3 Multiv. log regression Adjusted for ethnicity, future aspirations, body image, depressive moods, social relations and age Table 2B Girls Associations between reported 1st sexual int. and social level predictors: The Oslo Youth Survey Proportions reporting exp. of 1st sexual intercourse Model 1 n % p-Value OR CI Age 15 years 435 19.3 P<0.05 0.83 0.71-0.98 16 years 320 23.3 1 Ethnicity Ethnic Norwegian 705 25.3 P<0.001 1 Ethnic Minority 55 7 0.22 (0.17-0.30) Fathers education Primary education 95 22.8 P<0.01 1.44 (1.04-1.99) Secondary education 295 23.7 1.52 (1.17-2.00) Lower University 129 17.8 1.06 (0.79-1.43) Higher University 89 16.8 1 Mothers education 83 17.8 P<0.01 0.77 (0.53-1.13) Primary education Secondary education 336 24.7 1.19 (0.87-1.63) Lower University 183 18.7 0.83 (0.59-1.16) Higher University 59 21.4 1 Household income Lowest--220.000 49 17-6 NS 0.75 0.52-1.08 220-340.000 133 20.4 0.88 0.67-1.15 340-460.000 21R 21.9 0.9G 0.75-1.22 460-580.0110 140 20-1 0.84 0.65-1.10 580.000 + 140 22.2 1 Model 2 Model 3 OR CI OR CI Age 15 years 0.80 0.67-0.94 0.92 0.75-1.3 16 years 1 1 Ethnicity Ethnic Norwegian Ethnic Minority Fathers education Primary education 2-23 1.59-3.13 1.77 1.21-2.61 Secondary education 1.78 1.36-2.33 1.44 1.07-1.95 Lower University 1.14 0.84-1.54 1.13 0.81-1.56 Higher University 1 1 Mothers education 1.33 0.89-1.97 0.90 0.58-1.41 Primary education Secondary education 1.31 0.95-1.81 1.02 0.72-1.45 Lower University 0.84 0.60-1.17 0.80 0.56-1.16 Higher University 1 1 Household income Lowest--220.000 1.42 0.97-2.09 1.45 0.95-2.20 220-340.000 1.58 1.19-2.11 1.61 1.17-2.10 340-460.000 1.14 0.89-1.46 1.15 0.89-1.51 460-580.0110 0.88 O.68-1.15 0.93 0.69-1.23 580.000 + 1 1 Model 1 Simple logistic regression Associations between 1st sex and social level predictors Model 2 Multivariate log regression Adjusted for ethnicity Mode1 3 Multiv. log regression Adjusted for ethnicity, future aspirations, body image, depressive moods, social relations and age Table 3A Boys Associations between reported 1st sexual int. and individual level factors: The Oslo Youth Survey Proportions reporting exp. of 1st sexual intercourse n % p-Value Sexual abuse Yes 40 63.5 P<0.001 No 719 21.4 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 232 17.4 P<0.001 Univ./college lower or 103 20.7 intermediate High school academic 48 231.0 Vocational study program 246 31.5 Other and Basics or 45 30.8 10th grade only Do not know 86 19.5 Debut No d. Body image (z-score) Mean -0.24 -0.35 (SD) (0.64) (0.57) P<0.001 Depressed moods 1.44 1.30 (range 1-4) (0.48) (0.37) P<0.001 Social Support Family (range 1-5) 3.16 3.34 (0.74) (0.58) P<0.001 Friends (range 1-4) 2.59 2.50 (0.50) (0.51) P<0.001 Classmates (range 1-4) 1.98 2.13 (0.76) (0.65) P<0.001 Teachers (range 1-4) 1.71 1.96 (0.86) (0.73) P<0.001 Model 1 Model 2 OR CI OR CI Sexual abuse Yes 6.37 3.79-10.71 5.76 3.36-9.89 No 1.00 1.00 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 1.00 1.00 Univ./college lower or 1.24 0.87-1.51 1.24 0.96-1.62 intermediate High school academic 1.43 1.15-3.09 1.39 0.97-1.98 Vocational study program 2.19 1.78-2.69 2.17 1.762-2.68 Other and Basics or 2.12 1.00-2.03 2.11 1.44-3.09 10th grade only Do not know 1.15 0.96-l.61 1.18 0.90-1.5G Body image (z-score) Mean (SD) 1.35 1.18-1.54 1.22 1.01-1.48 Depressed moods (range 1-4) 2.21 1.84-2.66 2.14 1.78-2.59 Social Support Family (range 1-5) 0.66 0.59-0.74 0.68 0.60-0.76 Friends (range 1-4) 1.44 1.22-1.71 1.45 1.22-1.72 Classmates (range 1-4) 0.74 0.66-0.83 0.75 0.67-O.84 Teachers (range 1-4) 0.66 0.59-0.73 0.65 0.59-11.73 Model 3 OR CI Sexual abuse Yes 4.00 2.28-8.48 No 1.00 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 1.00 Univ./college lower or 0.98 0.72-1.35 intermediate High school academic 1.25 0.82-1.90 Vocational study program 1.62 1.24-2.11 Other and Basics or 1.59 0.98-2.58 10th grade only Do not know 0.99 0.70-1.39 Body image (z-score) Mean (SD) 1.09 0.92-129 Depressed moods (range 1-4) 1.82 1.40-2.36 Social Support Family (range 1-5) 0.82 0.70-0.97 Friends (range 1-4) 2.22 1.76-2.81 Classmates (range 1-4) 0.88 0.74-1.04 Teachers (range 1-4) 0.73 0.63-0.85 Model 1 Simple logistic regression Associations between 1st sex and social level predictors Model 2 Multivariate log regression Adjusted for ethnicity Model 3 Multiv. log regression Adjusted for ethnicity, future aspirations, body image, depressive moods, social relations and age Table 3B Girls Associations between 1st sexual intercourse and individual level predictors: The Oslo Youth Survey Proportions reporting exp. of 1st sexual intercourse n % p-Value Sexual abuse Yes 108 49.8 P<0.001 No 637 19.2 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 118 20.5 P<0.001 Univ./college lower or 37 23.6 intermediate High school academic 185 29.9 Vocational study program 49 29.4 Other and Basics or 132 20.0 10th grade only Do not know 227 16.8 Debut No debut Body Image (z-score) Mean 0.50 0.27 (SD) (0.83) (0.81) P<0.001 Depressed moods 1.77 1.58 (range 1-4) (0.58) (0.53) P<0.001 Social Support Family (1-5) 3.07 3.30 (0.79) (0.64) P<0.001 Friends (1-4) 2.74 2.66 (0.40) (0.46) P<0.001 Classmates (1-4) 1.93 2.01 (0.76) (0.53) P<0.01 Teachers (1-4) 1.71 1.98 (0.81) (0.70) P<0.001 Model 1 Model 2 OR CI OR CI Sexual abuse Yes 4.16 3.14-5.50 No 1 1 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 1 1 Univ./college lower or 1.28 1.01-1.62 1.22 0.96-1.56 intermediate High school academic 1.53 1.07-2.17 1.65 1.15-2.37 Vocational study program 2.11 1.69-2.64 2.29 1.82-2.29 Other and Basics or 2.06 1.37-3.10 1.95 1.28-2.96 10th grade only Do not know 1.23 0.96-1.58 1.09 0.85-1.41 Body Image (z-score) Mean (SD) 1.4 1.27-1.54 1.43 1.30-1.59 Depressed moods (range 1-4) 1.77 1.54-2.03 1.86 1.61-2.15 Social Support Family (1-5) 0.65 0.59-0.72 0.58 0.52-0.65 Friends (1-4) 1.55 1.27-1.89 1.4 1.14-1.71 Classmates (1-4) 0.86 0.77-0.96 0.88 0.79-0.99 Teachers (1-4) 0.62 0.56-0.69 0.65 0.58-0.73 Model 3 OR CI Sexual abuse Yes 2.96 2.08-4.22 No 1 Future aspirations Univ/college higher degree 1 Univ./college lower or 1.01 0.75-1.35 intermediate High school academic 0.85 0.53-1.37 Vocational study program 1-81 1.35-2.43 Other and Basics or 0.33 0.80-2.27 10th grade only Do not know 0.94 0.69-1.27 Body Image (z-score) Mean (SD) 1.35 1.19-1.54 Depressed moods (range 1-4) 1.29 1.05-1.56 Social Support Family (1-5) 0.68 0.58-0.79 Friends (1-4 2.05 1.56-2.70 Classmates (1-4) 1.12 0.93-1.32 Teachers (1-4) 0.72 0.62-0.84 Model 1 Simple logistic regression Associations between 1st sex and social level predictors Model 2 Multivariate log regression Adjusted for ethnicity Model 3 Multiv. log regression Adjusted for ethnicity, future aspirations, body image, depressive moods, social relations and age…
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Publication information: Article title: Parental Social Position, Body Image, and Other Psychosocial Determinants and First Sexual Intercourse among 15- and 16-Year Olds. Contributors: Valle, Ann-Karin - Author, Roysamb, Espen - Author, Sundby, Johanne - Author, Klepp, Knut Inge - Author. Journal title: Adolescence. Volume: 44. Issue: 174 Publication date: Summer 2009. Page number: 479+. © 1999 Libra Publishers, Inc. COPYRIGHT 2009 Gale Group.
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