Research Update: The Volunteer Coaching Game Plan: Factors Such as Success and Self-Efficacy Drive Volunteer Coaches

By Kowalski, Chris | Parks & Recreation, January 2008 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Research Update: The Volunteer Coaching Game Plan: Factors Such as Success and Self-Efficacy Drive Volunteer Coaches


Kowalski, Chris, Parks & Recreation


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

With 40 percent to 50 percent of young people's time categorized as free and unobligated, they have plenty of time for numerous leisure and recreation activities (Caldwell & Baldwin, 2003). Youth sports have become a staple for young people during their leisure time. While engaging in sports, youth are able to experience a new activity, refine their skills or techniques, interact with their teammates, engage in competition, and have fun. Youth coaches serve not only as team leaders, but also as role models and mentors. The coach's leadership style and decision-making in the youth sports setting may have a lasting impact on a young person's decision to continue participating in a sport.

Coaches are responsible for teaching and guiding their athletes. Volunteering to be a youth sports coach can be daunting if an individual has limited playing or coaching experience in that particular sport. Coaches with limited experience about motivation or technical skills may not believe in their ability to guide young athletes. Focusing on coaching efficacy allows individuals to understand what can impact their own coaching abilities and provides organizations with opportunities to mold and guide volunteer coaches involved in their programs.

Coaching efficacy is the belief coaches have in their ability to carry out a certain course of action. Specifically, coaching efficacy comprises four dimensions: character-building, motivation, technique, and game strategy (Feltz, Chase, Moritz & Sullivan, 1999).

Character-building addresses a coach's belief in influencing an athlete's personal development and attitude. Motivation examines a coach's belief in influencing the psychological state of an athlete. Technique looks at a coach's belief in his or her own instructional skills. And game strategy explores the belief a coach has in his or her ability to lead during a game performance. These four dimensions have been determined through research to be the "building blocks" on which coaching efficacy is gauged (Feltz et al., 1999; Marback, Short, Short & Sullivan, 2005; Vargas-Tonsing, Warners & Feltz, 2003).

Coaches with high levels of efficacy remain in coaching longer than coaches with lower levels of efficacy (Everhart & Chelladurai, 1998). Understanding these dimensions and a coach's overall level of efficacy may help youth sports organization administrators retain the volunteer coaches who in some cases are the backbone of programs.

Research and Critique

A coach's level of efficacy plays a major role in an individual's commitment to coaching. Factors that may play a role in determining a coach's level of efficacy are 1) organizational and community support, 2) coaching education/ licensing/certification programs or clinics, 3) previous coaching experience, and 4) win-loss record.

Administrators of youth sports organizations willing to invest the time addressing each of these factors increase the chances of their retaining coaches. Although all of the factors are discussed in terms of current research, organizations can have the greatest influence by providing support and education.

Research has shown that a coach will remain committed to coaching when the organization or community he or she coaches for is committed to him or her as a coach (Kent & Sullivan, 2003). Social support is a key component; a coach needs to feel appreciated and welcome by the organization and the community for the job he or she does. These feelings in turn will positively influence coaching efficacy levels (Feltz et al., 1999).

Coaching education classes and licensing or certification clinics have been attributed to an increase in a coach's level of efficacy. Lee, Malete and Feltz (2002) found that coaching education provides valuable information on technical skills and game strategy, which positively affect the coach's efficacy.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Research Update: The Volunteer Coaching Game Plan: Factors Such as Success and Self-Efficacy Drive Volunteer Coaches
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?