The Effects of Learning Goals on Learning Performance of Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Late Adolescents in a Hypertext Environment

By Ku, David Tawei; Soulier, J. Steve | Adolescence, Fall 2009 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Learning Goals on Learning Performance of Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Late Adolescents in a Hypertext Environment


Ku, David Tawei, Soulier, J. Steve, Adolescence


INTRODUCTION

As a result of advances in network technology, the Internet has become an extremely important way of delivering instruction. However, changing only the method of delivery may not provide further benefits to learners. Teaching and learning are about the meaningful interaction between instructors and learners no matter what the method of delivery (Muthukumar, 2004). Therefore, to provide better and more efficient instruction via the Internet, and to take advantage of online technology, it is important to investigate the information processing behavior of those who access a computerized reading environment and the potential impact of that behavior on learning.

The proliferation of Internet-based instruction indicates that learners have greater opportunities to involve the hypertext environment (Brinkerhoff, Klein, & Koroghlanian, 2001). Hypertext characterizes the nature of a computerized and Internet format environment. Hypertext environment provides different ways to approach content; its nonlinear characteristics allow different individuals to interact with the same information through different processes. Users are normally free to create their own reading structure and sequence. In fact, hypertext changes the conventional processes of structuring knowledge and understanding (Calcaterra, Antonietti, & Underwood, 2005; Lawless, Mills, & Brown, 2002; Muller-Kalthoff & Moller, 2003; Niederhauser, Reynolds, Salmen, & Skolmoski, 2000; Potelle & Rouet, 2003; Salmeron, Canas, Klntsch, & Fajarod, 2005).

In the past decade many researchers have investigated the importance of the hypertext system to learning. Using hyperlink systems as the main environment, numerous studies have examined the correlation between individual differences in cognitive style and performance of the users (Alomyan, 2004; Chen, & Macredie, 2002; Graft, 2003; Lawless et al., 1999; Lu, Yu, & Lin, 2003; Terrell, 2002). Chert and Macredie (2002) analyzed previous studies before constructing their own learning model in hypertext learning design. Lawless et al. (1999) investigated how learning goals influenced a reader's representation of the text content in a hypertext reading environment. Although the results showed no statistically significant differences in achievement scores between the groups with specific versus general preset learning goals in a hypertext environment, the study showed that the group constructed relational-type maps more frequently under the influence of a specific preset learning goal, indicating that different learning goals can influence users' thinking and patterns of navigation.

Although hypertext has been on the Internet for years and has become very popular in computer-based instruction and many studies have been conducted, it has not realized its potential to benefit all learners at the same level (Calcaterra et al., 2005; Chen & Macredie, 2002; Rouet & Levonen, 1996). Moreover, recent surveys show that Internet is the most important medium in young people's social life and is their main source of information (Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006; Valkenbrug & Peter, 2007b; Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2003). Therefore, this study investigated the hypertext system from the perspective of instructional design regarding the performance of late adolescents and includes two critical factors: goal setting and cognitive styles.

Goal-Setting Theory

Goals are generally defined as performance objectives, or what learners want to achieve (Urdan, 1997). Goal setting provides motivation and a situation in which students can accomplish their task, no matter whether the students themselves or the instructors set the goal. Regardless of the content of learning, goal setting provides a clear direction and a precise target. The properties of the goal, that is, the level of specificity, proximity or difficulty, determine the effect of the goal. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Learning Goals on Learning Performance of Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Late Adolescents in a Hypertext Environment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.