Time Use, Gender and Disadvantage in Australia: Conventional Income and 'Full Income' Approaches to Estimation

By Hill, Trish | The Economic and Labour Relations Review : ELRR, December 2009 | Go to article overview

Time Use, Gender and Disadvantage in Australia: Conventional Income and 'Full Income' Approaches to Estimation


Hill, Trish, The Economic and Labour Relations Review : ELRR


1 Introduction

The conventional measure used to assess relative economic disadvantage and poverty status is income. Conventional income poverty measures use household or income unit income levels as a proxy for the standard of living for all members in that household. The total income is then equivalised to take into account the size of households and economies of scale in larger households. All members of the household are allocated the same level of equivalised income and are thus considered to have equivalent standards of living. This approach has been criticised for assuming that all resources within households are pooled. Income measures have also been criticised for focusing on income level whilst ignoring the sources, circumstances, costs or time taken to earn or use the income. Feminist research has argued for a more complete depiction of differences in living standards or relative disadvantage, including the value of time use and a better description of the intrahousehold distribution of resources (eg. Aslaksen and Koren 1996).

This article proposes an alternative concept of 'full income', which constructs a broader measure of individuals' resources, including the value of time use. It compares the distribution of conventional income and full income to gain further insights into the extent of gender inequalities in living standards and identify vulnerable population subgroups on both the conventional income and full income measures.

The concept of full income was inspired by the work of Peter Travers and Sue Richardson (1993), who proposed it as a broad measure of material wellbeing. Their model of full income aimed to provide a broader and more complex picture of wellbeing than that provided by the current income of individuals or households. Their full income model of wellbeing included some of the major sources of material wellbeing: income, the value of time in leisure, the value of benefits from goods and services provided by government--called the social wage--and the value of goods and services received from assets owned, such as a car or house. They then sought to find 'sensible money values' for the goods and services that did not have a price in the market in order to construct a single monetary index of relative wellbeing. One advantage of this approach is that it showed whether disadvantage in one sphere such as income was counteracted by advantage in another sphere, such as ownership of assets. The theoretical approach used here to analyse wellbeing or living standards is located in their work, although it significantly differs from it in some respects. Its key aim is to outline a method for providing a more comprehensive picture of the value of each individual's total resources than that provided by income alone.

The analysis departs both from conventional income measures and from the approach of Travers and Richardson (1993), whilst remaining within the latter's conceptual framework. First, it uses the individual as the unit of analysis and does not assume equal sharing of income within the household. Second, it uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Time Use Survey to add the value of unpaid work performed by partners into each individual's bundle of resources. Third, it identifies much more precisely the amount of 'uncontaminated' leisure each individual has, rather than using the residual model of leisure that was employed in Travers' and Richardson's original study. Fourth, its estimate of the individual's benefit from the social wage is derived from the ABS Household Expenditure Survey. Its estimate of the value of services provided from assets is limited by data availability to the degree of home ownership.

Methods of including time use in measures of living standards are not without controversy. This article outlines one such approach and identifies its effect on our picture of who experiences disadvantage in Australia. Both ABS surveys used in this analysis are sample surveys, and thus for reasons of statistical reliability in the estimates, they do not include indicators of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Time Use, Gender and Disadvantage in Australia: Conventional Income and 'Full Income' Approaches to Estimation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.