Philosophies and Expectations of Wheelchair and Stand-Up Collegiate Basketball Coaches

By Robbins, Jamie E.; Houston, Eva et al. | Journal of Sport Behavior, March 2010 | Go to article overview

Philosophies and Expectations of Wheelchair and Stand-Up Collegiate Basketball Coaches


Robbins, Jamie E., Houston, Eva, Dummer, Gail M., Journal of Sport Behavior


Wheelchair Basketball

Wheelchair basketball is the most popular team sport for athletes with disabilities. The sport was developed by injured World War II veterans around 1946 and it quickly spread across Europe. Competitive events began informally in 1973 and more official competitions emerged in the following years. Since then, wheelchair basketball has become a collegiate sport, recruiting top athletes from the junior divisions. Wheelchair basketball rules are in accordance with NCAA regulations, with only a few modifications regarding the wheelchair. Any individual with a severe and permanent leg injury or paralysis of the lower body is eligible to play.

The sport is continually growing from the junior to Paralympic level, and according to the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF), one of the biggest obstacles may be in finding and training coaches. This statement speaks to the importance of quality coaches to enhancing and building a sport program. In order to create the most effective training program or identify possible coaches, it is critical to first understand the current mentality of individuals in coaching positions. There is very little empirical data concerning coaches' expectations and philosophies in general, therefore, one purpose of the following study was to identify the philosophies and expectations of coaches for wheelchair and stand-up basketball. In as much as the two sports are similar, it seems logical that coaches would share thoughts and ideas about their sports. These findings are relevant for research and understanding in addition to outcome and athletic participation because coaches' expectations have been found to significantly affect athletic performances (Chase, Lirgg, & Feltz, 1997).

Coaches Expectations and Philosophies

The self-fulfilling prophecy theory explains how the expectations of one individual can influence the thoughts and behaviors of another (Merton, 1968). The expectations-performance relationship explains this process in a sport context (Horn, Lox, & Labrador, 2001). First, coach forms an expectation of an athlete based on personal cues. The coaches' expectations influence their own coaching behaviors toward the athlete, which get interpreted by the athlete and influence performance. This process re-confirms coach's initial expectation. The significance of the coach is unmistakable as the process begins with a mere thought transmitted to an athlete by expression, word, or action. Coaches' verbal persuasion can influence; not only behaviors, but also athletes' self-esteem (Bandura, 1990). In general, athletes appreciate their coaches' presence and recognize the influence these individuals have on their athletic success (White & Duda, 1993). Athletes want coaches to push them and demonstrate confidence in them as was explained by athletes at the 1994 Winter Paralympics who stated that without high expectancy coaches, athletes must be completely self-motivated (Pensgaard, Roberts, & Ursin, 1999). Although these are top level, self-motivated competitors, they admit that external assistance is both helpful and appreciated. In addition, coaches with low expectations of athletes, who accept mediocre performances, may perpetuate the myth that individuals with disabilities are not real athletes; whereas, coaches who expect greatness and extraordinary achievements from their athletes may negate the negative stigma associated with disability.

Empirical studies examining coaches' philosophies and expectations are minimal and even less is known about coaches for athletes with disabilities. According to Coakley (2007), most coaches share a set of beliefs referred to as the sport ethic. Sports, at all levels, are about pushing limits and doing more than what was done before. According to the sport ethic, athletes are expected to: (a) make sacrifices for the game; (b) strive for distinction; (c) accept risks and play through pain; and (d) accept no limits while pursuing the possibilities of sport. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Philosophies and Expectations of Wheelchair and Stand-Up Collegiate Basketball Coaches
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.