The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants

By Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Brooks, A. Paul, Jr. et al. | Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2009 | Go to article overview

The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants


Frisbee, Stephanie J., Brooks, A. Paul, Jr., Maher, Arthur, Flensborg, Patsy, Arnold, Susan, Fletcher, Tony, Steenland, Kyle, Shankar, Anoop, Knox, Sarah S., Pollard, Cecil, Halverson, Joel A., Vieira, Veronica M., Jin, Chuanfang, Leyden, Kevin M., Ducatman, Alan M., Environmental Health Perspectives


BACKGROUND: The C8 Health Project was created, authorized, and funded as part of the settlement agreement reached in the case of Jack W. Leach, et al. v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (no. 01-C-608 W.Va., Wood County Circuit Court, filed 10 April 2002). The settlement stemmed from the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) contamination of drinking water in six water districts in two states near the DuPont Washington Works facility near Parkersburg, West Virginia.

OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the methods and results from the C8 Health Project, a population study created to gather data that would allow class members to know their own PFOA levels and permit subsequent epidemiologic investigations.

METHODS: Final study participation was 69,030, enrolled over a 13-month period in 2005-2006. Extensive data were collected, including demographic data, medical diagnoses (both self-report and medical records review), clinical laboratory testing, and determination of serum concentrations of 10 perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Here we describe the processes used to collect, validate, and store these health data. We also describe survey participants and their serum PFC levels.

RESULTS: The population geometric mean for serum PFOA was 32.91 ng/mL, 500% higher than previously reported for a representative American population. Serum concentrations for perfluoro-hexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were elevated 39% and 73% respectively, whereas perfluorooctanesulfonate was present at levels similar to those in the U.S. population.

CONCLUSIONS: This largest known population study of community PFC exposure permits new evaluations of associations between PFOA, in particular, and a range of health parameters. These will contribute to understanding of the biology of PFC exposure. The C8 Health Project also represents an unprecedented effort to gather basic data on an exposed population; its achievements and limitations can inform future legal settlements for populations exposed to environmental contaminants.

KEY WORDS: C8, environmental contamination, perfluorocarbons, PFOA, toxic tort settlement. Environ Health Perspect 117:1873-1882 (2009). doi:10.1289/ehp.0800379 available via http://dx.doi.org/ [Online 13 July 2009]

**********

Perfluorooctanoatic acid (PFOA, or C8) is one member of the class of man-made perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds. PFOA exists as an alkyl acid (PFOA), an ammonium salt (ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO)], or as a dissociated conjugate base [perfluorooctanoate (PFO)]. A closely related PFC is perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8 sulfonate, or C8S). Additional, related PFCs include C5 [perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA)], C6 [perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)], C6 sulfonate [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS)], C7 [perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA)], C9 [perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)], C10 [perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)], C11 [perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA)], and C12 [perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)]. PFCs are used as plasticizers, wetting agents, and emulsifiers during the manufacture of fluropolymers, including products that impart nonstick heat resistance to cookware or breathable yet waterproof properties to fabrics. PFCs may also result from the metabolism or environmental breakdown of fluorinated telomers, including chemicals, used to coat commercial food packaging and for stain-resistant treatment tor fabrics and clothing. PFOA may also be a residual impurity in personal care products.

PFCs and health. PFOA and other PFCs persist in the environment and are found in groundwater and surface water worldwide (Yamashita et al. 2008). They are present in blood and other tissues of animal species throughout the world, including remote regions (Tao et al. 2006). Recent publications have extensively reviewed and summarized the known toxicologic properties, environmental distribution, and potential health concerns related to PFOA (Kennedy et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.