The Gender Identity/gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: Further Validity Evidence

By Singh, Devita; Deogracias, Joseph J. et al. | The Journal of Sex Research, January-February 2010 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

The Gender Identity/gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: Further Validity Evidence


Singh, Devita, Deogracias, Joseph J., Johnson, Laurel L., Bradley, Susan J., Kibblewhite, Sarah J., Owen-Anderson, Allison, Peterson-Badali, Michele, Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L., Zucker, Kenneth J., The Journal of Sex Research


In contemporary developmental psychology and sexology, gender identity is usually described in a binary manner (i.e., a male vs. a female gender identity). In clinical practice, this has been translated into a dichotomous conceptualization of gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder (GID), and is reflected in nosological systems, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), in that a person either does or does not meet criteria for GID. Thus, given this constraint of a binary approach, there has been increasing interest in measuring gender dysphoria as a dimensional construct.

There are various reasons why a dimensional approach to the measurement of gender identity and gender dysphoria may have both conceptual and clinical merit. In post-modern Western culture, it has been claimed that more and more individuals are rejecting the traditional binary of male versus female, suggestive of greater evidence of normative gender fluidity (Diamond & Butterworth, 2008). Among clinical populations (see below), including patients who present to specialized gender identity clinics, it has been argued that there is currently more heterogeneity in clinical presentation, which may not be fully captured by a dichotomous diagnostic system, such as the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; e.g., Feldman & Bockting, 2003). Accordingly, a dimensional measure of gender identity and gender dysphoria may be able to better capture such putative variability.

Deogracias et al. (2007) reported on the development of a dimensional measure of gender identity and gender dysphoria that could be used in the assessment of both adolescents and adults. They constructed a 27-item gender identity and gender dysphoria questionnaire called the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA), with each item rated on a five-point response scale for the previous 12 months. In the development of this measure, gender identity and gender dysphoria were conceptualized as existing on a bipolar continuum with a male pole, a female pole, and varying degrees of gender dysphoria existing between them. Parallel versions were constructed for males and females. Factor analysis identified a one-factor solution containing all 27 items (see below for details). The mean factor score significantly discriminated both adolescents and adults with GID (n = 39) from a non-clinical comparison group of both heterosexual and non-heterosexual university students (N=389), with excellent specificity (90.4%) and sensitivity (99.7%) rates. As acknowledged by Deogracias et al. (2007), perhaps the most prominent limitation of their study was the lack of a clinical control (CC) comparison group. The acquisition of CC data would help to clarify the extent to which gender dysphoria is a characteristic of clinical populations in general or is quite specific to patients referred because of concerns about their gender identity.

This study aimed to replicate and extend the findings of Deogracias et al. (2007). In Study 1, a new sample of adolescents with GID was utilized and compared to adolescents referred for a variety of other clinical concerns and adolescent males with transvestic fetishism (TF). This enabled us to examine the comparability of GIDYQ-AA scores for two samples of GID adolescents and to provide a further test of discriminant validity. In Study 2, adults with GID were compared to adults referred for other clinical concerns. In both studies, we also examined the relation between current self-reported gender dysphoria and a dimensional measure of recalled cross-gender behavior in childhood as a test of convergent validity.

Study 1

Method

Participants. A total of 44 adolescents (19 males, 25 females) referred consecutively to the Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program (CYFP) at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) between February 2005 and February 2008 participated as probands.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

The Gender Identity/gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: Further Validity Evidence
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?