Measuring the Effectiveness of Advertisements Sent Via Mobile Phone: Implications of the Appeal, Endorser, and Involvement Model and Purchasing Behavior
Yeh, Jin-Tsann, Lin, Chyong-Ling, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
Many regard the Internet as the paradise of advertising (Cho, 2003). There is a popular belief that through the apparent advantages of the Internet, such as low cost and powerful promotion marketing, a company can very easily insinuate its brand into the lives of online users. However, personalization and mobility significantly separate via mobile phone (m-commerce) advertising from Internet advertising, potentially giving m-commerce the upper hand (Barnes & Scornavacca, 2004; Carroll, Barnes, Scornavacca, & Fletcher, 2007; Mort, Drennan, & Plummer, 2007). Using advertising based on personalization and geography, firms can identify a user's location precisely and deliver relevant messages to users.
The growth of m-commerce will likely contribute to the advancement of mobile advertising techniques and the diversification of services. The traditional pattern of marketing would be transformed into an interactive one, which implies a move to one-to-one marketing from one-to-more marketing (Mort & Drennan, 2005; Reid & Reid, 2007). The aim in this study was to explore the impact of different types of advertising appeal and endorsers on differing degrees of involvement in advertising effects on mobile phones as well as conducting an analysis of the extant literature and available data. The scope of the research was as follows:
1. The correlation between information appeal and advertising effects on different degrees of involvement.
2. The correlation between the types of endorser and advertising effects and different degrees of involvement.
3. The correlation of the types of information appeal and endorser and advertising effects with different degrees of involvement.
The American Marketing Association (2010) defines advertising as the description and promotion of the idea, products or services of confirmed advertisers who pay without personal participation. The most significant difference between m-commerce advertisements and traditional advertisements is that while traditional advertisements "push" products or promote to people in general, m-commerce advertisements are aimed at specific individuals using content and graphics designed to "pull" or attract the users by targeting their needs, and are sent direct from the advertisers to mobile phones (Ahluwalia & Varshney, 2005; Okazaki, 2004).
For an advertisement to be successful, Kotler (1991) asserts that information appeal has two parts: (1) rational appeal, which informs consumers of the core values of the product such as practicability, function, and quality; and (2) emotional appeal, which is aimed at stimulating a purchase based on an emotional response to context and image.
Advertising aims to attract as many consumers as possible, however, it is difficult to identify the tastes and interests of a large group of consumers. In order to accelerate buyers' purchasing decisions and maximize their satisfaction, successful advertisements must include valuable information about products or services, as well as attractive endorsers (Engel, Blackwell, & Miniard, 1993). Many scholars suggest that a vendor can influence their consumers, and maintain their loyalty, most effectively by using a series of advertisements (Amos, Holmes, & Strutton, 2008; Thompson, 2006). The result of this is that consumers have many choices. Researchers have classified purchasing behaviors as follows according to the degree of product involvement, brand name selection, and consumer preference of endorser (Amos, Holmes, & Strutton, 2008; Assael, 1987; Thompson, 2006):
1. Complicated purchase behavior: consumers who intend to purchase an expensive, unfamiliar, risky, and/or important product, use a process of product knowledge and evaluation to build faith and confidence in a particular product from the range available before they purchase.
2. Reducing imbalanced purchase behavior: consumers accelerate their purchasing decisions after evaluating the characteristics of competing products and recognizing that there is no significant difference between them. …