Organic Farming in Punjab: An Economic Analysis

By Sharma, Subhash; Pandove, Amita | Political Economy Journal of India, January-July 2010 | Go to article overview

Organic Farming in Punjab: An Economic Analysis


Sharma, Subhash, Pandove, Amita, Political Economy Journal of India


Introduction

Most countries have tradinally utilized various kinds of organic materials to maintain or improve the tilth, fertility and productivity for their agricultural soils. The burgeoning population pressure has forced many countries to use chemicals and fertilizers to increase the farm productivity for meeting their food requirements. The prolonged and overuse of chemicals has, however, resulted in human and soil health hazard and pollution of the environment. Along with this environmental crises, there is a crisis of un- sustainability of the present industrial chemicalized agriculture. Two dimensions of this human crises are the suicides of farmers and the growth of hunger and malnutrition. The agrarian crisis leading to farmers suicides is a result of debt and debt is a result of the convergence of rising costs of non sustainable and inappropriate production system and falling prices of agricultural products due to unjust and unfair trade patterns (Shiva Vandana 2007). Hence, we need an ecological paradigm of agriculture, based on biodiversity and agroecology.

Bio-diverse organic farming can solve all aspects of the ecological crisis caused by industrial agriculture. Toxic pollution can be avoided because no chemicals are used in organic farming. It is also an economically sustainable production system. Bio- diverse organic farming address both dimensions of human crisis. It lowers cost of production by getting rid of chemicals and un-necessary mechanization, thus helping farmers to earn more and escape the dept trap.

In the light of these, it becomes pertinent that an in-depth impact assessment study be carried out to gather first hand information on the above issues.

So the present study has been carried out with following objectives:

To make a comparative analysis of organic farming with modern chemicalized farming in terms of cost of production;

To estimate returns of organic farming to farmers as compared to other farming methods; and

To suggest suitable policy measures related to organic farming.

Materials and methods

In order to accomplish the objectives of the study, the primary data were collected. The data pertained to the agricultural year 2004-05.

The study was conducted in four districts of Punjab State: Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Roper where organic farming is actively under taken. Three-stage- stratified-random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The three stages of selection were comprised of development block as the first stage sampling unit, village as the second stage unit and the operational holding as the third stage unit respectively.

In order to make comparative study of organic and chemicalized farming, four farmers practicing chemicalized farming were selected, in each village. Therefore, a total sample of 256 farmers (128 organic+128 chemalized) covering 32 villages, eight blocks and four district of Punjab was finally chosen for the ultimate analysis. Primary data was collected from respondents directly using detailed questionnaires. Student t- test was used to analyse the data.

Results and discussion

The cost and returns of organic and inorganic farming has been analyzed. Finally, the efforts have been made to examine the factors affecting the status of economic surplus of the organic and inorganic farmers.

The production pattern of respondent farmers was dominated by paddy-wheat crop rotation. So the cost and return structure of paddy cultivation will be discussed under different heads.

Human labour use pattern on different operations in inorganic and organic paddy

It is clear from the Table-1 that nursery raising utilized 8.42 hours in inorganic farming and 8.11 hours in organic farming. Land preparation utilized 4.59 hours in inorganic farming and 4.17 hours in organic farming. Whereas transplantation utilized 41. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Organic Farming in Punjab: An Economic Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.