Canada-U.S. Interregional Trade, 1989-2001/la Commerce Interregional Canada-E.U., 1989-2001

By Andresen, Martin A. | Canadian Journal of Regional Science, Summer 2009 | Go to article overview

Canada-U.S. Interregional Trade, 1989-2001/la Commerce Interregional Canada-E.U., 1989-2001


Andresen, Martin A., Canadian Journal of Regional Science


Abstract

Canada and the U.S. established two free trade agreements in recent years. The majority of research investigating the effects of these agreements is performed at the national level, potentially obscuring local effects from free trade. The research that does investigate regional effects of free trade typically aggregates provinces and states into regions and/or is undertaken using one year of trade data. The present analysis uses provinces and states as the spatial units of analysis studying trade volumes, shares, and economic dependence over time. It is found that the geography of interregional trade within Canada and the U.S. has changed significantly over the study period, with geographical proximity being one of the drivers of change.

Resume

Canada--U.S. interregional trade, 1989-2001. La commerce interregional Canada--E.U., 1989-2001. Les echanges internationaux sont importants pour la plupart des pays ainsi que leurs regions respectives. Alors que l'etude des echanges regionaux est toute naturelle pour la geographie economique, la plupart des etudes portant sur la geographie des echanges ont ete realisees a l'echelle nationale seulement. Au Canada et aux Etats-Unis, les deux ententes de libre-echange qui ont ete etablies dernierement ont nul doute modifie les echanges regionaux. Bien que la tendance generale d'une substitution des echanges interprovinciaux pour des echanges internationaux est connue et bien documentee, tel n'est pas le cas en ce qui concerne les details de cette tendance generale. Cette etude analyse les tendances des echanges regionaux du Canada (de province a province et de province a etat) a partir des donnees sur le volume des echanges, les parts des echanges, la dependance economique en raison des echanges (exportations comine part du PIB), ainsi qu'une analyse des echanges internationaux des produits de l'industrie automobile de l'Ontario.

En ce qui concerne le volume des echanges inter-regionaux, les exportations interprovinciales ainsi qu'internationales des provinces canadiennes ont augmente plus rapidement que le produit interieur brut (PIB) entre 1989 et 2001, a l'exception des Territoires. Les importations ont quant a elles augmente a un rythme plus lent que le PIB. De plus, les augmentations au niveau des echanges internationaux ont ete significativement plus elevees que celles entre les provinces. A l'ouest du Quebec, les importations proviennent de plus en plus des Etats-Unis alors que le Quebec, les Maritimes et les Territoires importent des provinces canadiennes- leurs exportations etant similaires aux provinces de l'Ouest. De facon generale, les echanges interprovinciaux n'ont pas diminue mais ont connu une augmentation plus lente, provenant egalement de sources differentes selon les provinces. Finalement, les augmentations les plus importantes dans les exportations canadiennes ont ete enregistrees envers des partenaires economiques importants ainsi que rapproches geographiquement.

L'analyse des parts d'echange offre une meilleure representation de la modification de la distribution spatiale des importations et exportations provinciales. A l'exception de Terre-Neuve et des Territoires, toutes les provinces canadiennes ont vu leurs parts d'exportation vers les Etats-Unis augmenter d'environ 50%. Meme si les parts d'importation en provenance des Etats-Unis des provinces canadiennes sont moins elevees que celles des exportations, elles ont tout dememe augmente d'environ 50%. Malgre ces changements significatifs en faveur des Etats-Unis, la modification de la distribution spatiale des importations et exportations s'est effectuee de facon graduelle. Ces augmentations des importations et exportations avec tes Etats-Unis correspondent aux baisses enregistrees au niveau interprovincial. Similaire au volume des echanges, la proximite geographique ainsi que la taille de l'economie sont des facteurs importants relies a l'augmentation des echanges.

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