Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model
Liu, Jing, International Education Studies
According to Oxford (1989), language learning strategies are behaviors or actions which learners use to make language learning more successful, self-directed and enjoyable. And Stern (1983), had noted that learning outcomes are much influenced by learning process, and the learning process is affected by the learners' internal characteristics and learning conditions. So the studies on language learning strategies have been of great significance. Although this area might hold much promise, it is still in its infancy.
2. Classification of Language Learning Strategies
Many scholars had attempted to classify learning strategies. Comprehensive classification schemes of learner strategies have been developed to describe the information derived from descriptive studies that seek to chart the subtle permutations and often imprecise definitions of learners' self-reported strategies. Earlier researchers used their own observations to describe language learning strategies, relied on categories derived from research in first language contexts, or developed a comprehensive list of learning strategies derived from many sources. More recently, strategy identification and classification have been data-driven through think-aloud protocol analysis. (Chamot 2004)
2.1 Wenden S Classification
Wenden's (1983) research examined the strategies that adult foreign language learners use in order to direct their own learning. Wenden's focus, therefore, is on what O'Malley and Chamot call meta-cognitive strategies. She identifies the following three general categories of self-directing strategies:
(1) Knowing about language and relating to what language and language learning involves;
(2) Planning relating to the 'what' and 'how' of language learning;
(3) Self-evaluation. It relates to progress in learning and learner's responses to the learning experience. Wenden's framework was considered as a basis for the later EFL learner's training.
2.2 Dansereau's Classification
Dansereau (1985) draws a distinction between a primary strategy and support strategies, the former is used to directly manage learning materials, and the latter helps to establish an appropriate learning attitude and therefore aids in coping with distractions, fatigue and frustrations. Later Oxford suggested two broad categories paralleling Dansereau's primary strategies and support strategies.
2.3 Rubin's Classification
According to the criteria of whether the strategy contributes directly or indirectly to learning, Rubin proposed a classification scheme that subsumes learning strategies under two primary groupings and a number of subgroups. She describes a typology of three major kinds of strategies: learning, (interactive) communication, and social strategies. Learner strategies "contribute to the development of the language system...and affect learning directly" (Rubin 1987:23). Language learning strategies are further categorized in cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies, which directly affect the development of the language system constructed by the learner. Rubin's cognitive strategies include: clarification/verification, guessing/inductive inferencing, deductive reasoning, practice (e.g. repetition, rehearsal, experimentation, application of rules, imitation, attention to detail), memorization, and monitoring. Meta-cognitive strategies involve various …
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Publication information: Article title: Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model. Contributors: Liu, Jing - Author. Journal title: International Education Studies. Volume: 3. Issue: 3 Publication date: August 2010. Page number: 100+. © 2010 Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE). COPYRIGHT 2010 Gale Group.
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