Research on Mood Stabilizers in India

By Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep et al. | Indian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2010 | Go to article overview

Research on Mood Stabilizers in India

Avasthi, Ajit, Grover, Sandeep, Aggarwal, Munish, Indian Journal of Psychiatry

Byline: Ajit. Avasthi, Sandeep. Grover, Munish. Aggarwal

Mood stabilizers have revolutionized the treatment of bipolar affective disorders. We review data originating from India in the form of efficacy, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of mood stabilizers. Data is mainly available for the usefulness and side-effects of lithium. A few studies in recent times have evaluated the usefulness of carbamazepine, valproate, atypical antipsychotics and verapamil. Occasional studies have compared two mood stabilizers. Data for long term efficacy and safety is conspicuously lacking.


Psychopharmacology has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of major mental disorders. With the help of psychopharmacological agents, not only is the neurobiology of various psychiatric disorders being understood, but effective treatments have improved relapse rates, symptom free period, significantly improved the quality of life of patients and have reduced the burden experienced by patients and their families.

Prior to lithium, typical antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy was used for management of bipolar disorders. However, over the years many drugs have been evaluated as mood stabilizers and have been shown to be efficacious, although the definition of a mood stabilizer is not yet settled.

Psychopharmacological research in India regarding mood stabilizers has lagged behind the data from the West. However, there has been a shift of research from mere case series to attempts at multicentric double blind controlled trials. In this review, we would review data on mood stabilizers originating from India on various mood stabilizers. The review shall focus on the research published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry and studies reported in PubMed indexed journals.

Mood Stabilizers

Amongst various mood stabilizers now available in India, lithium has been the most researched of all. There are a few studies on other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and sodium valproate.


After its introduction in India in the late 1960s, lithium aroused a lot of research interest in the 1970s and 80s, with most of the research revolving around open trials to see its usefulness in various disorders (mainly mood disorders) and its side-effect.

Effectiveness in mood disorders

The mood stabilizing property of lithium has led Indian researchers to see its effects in affective disorders. In their earliest work on role of lithium on mood disorders, Dube et al .[sup][1] in an uncontrolled trial of lithium in 20 hypomanic patients found that 95% patients showed significant improvement. There have been other studies to see the effectiveness of lithium in mood disorders. [sup][2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] Most of these studies have been open label, non-controlled, with assessment period varying from one month to 10 years and have sparingly used assessment scales. Lithium has been found useful in treating acute episodes, reducing number of episodes, duration and intensity of episodes, behavior and suicidal ideation. [sup][3],[5],[6],[8] Studies have also looked for the socio-clinical correlates which influence the effectiveness of lithium. It has been shown that effectiveness of lithium is influenced by age and sex [sup][4] and good response is predicted by lesser number of episodes prior to initiation of lithium therapy, long duration of illness, [sup][4] and presence of family history of affective disorder. [sup][2],[5] Patients with rapid cycling mood disorder and unipolar disorder were seen to respond poorly. [sup][2],[4],[9] Studies have also evaluated the utility of single dose vs. divided dose of lithium in prophylaxis of mood disorders. One study concluded that single daily dose was more useful in reducing number of affective episodes than divided doses [sup][10] whereas another retrospective case review concluded that there was no difference in the efficacy and adverse effect in patients with once daily lithium versus lithium in divided doses. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)


1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited article

Research on Mood Stabilizers in India


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.