A Context Dependent Implementation Method for Business Process Management Systems
Ravesteyn, Pascal, Communications of the IIMA
IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Lately Business Process Management (BPM) has gained much attention by management and IT departments in organizations as a means to increase flexibility and agility. To realize this goal, it is important to have a flexible information system in support of processes. The most promising approach to achieve this is service oriented architecture (Krafzig, Banke, & Slama, 2005; Lippert & Govindarajulu, 2006). However, implementation of business process management systems that support integrated BPM and SOA paradigms is complex. Also, BPM-systems are still in their early development stages and many have only done pilot implementations (Kamolvej, Sirisuk, & Tungchitipunya, 2007). Each implementation should, therefore, be carefully considered in the context in which it is carried out; and that is why the used method is important. There are many methodologies available for implementing information systems, such as business process management systems, enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, customer relationship management, and others. Both researchers and practitioners have developed overarching frameworks based on existing methods, and this is no different for the BPM domain. Multiple efforts have been made in constructing overall methods for implementation. Kettinger, Teng, and Guha (1997) have developed a business process reengineering (BPR) implementation framework based on different BPR implementation methodologies. Table 1 gives an overview of 22 different implementation methods for business process management. The list was constructed based on an assignment to 47 master students who were enrolled in a the business process management course. Each individual student had to search for three BPM-related implementation methods. This resulted in 141 methods, of which 22 could be uniquely identified (completely different method). Still this table is not exclusive because there are hundreds of methods available, although many are variations on the methods listed here. An analysis of the methods in the table shows that many implementation methods do not take into account the context in which they are used. Of the methods shown, there are five methods that are based on scientific research (Jennings, et al., 2000; Rinderle, Kreher, & Dadam, 2005; van der Aalst & Van Hee, 2002; Brahe & Bordbar, 2007; Stoica, Chawat, & Shin, 2004; Fitzgerald & Murphy, 1996) but are not or are seldom applied in practical situations. Nine are based on professional best practices, while they are not or are only supported in a minor way by scientific research; and finally, eight methodologies are actively being used in practice, while at the same time supported by an extensive body of scientific research. Although most of the methods are developed for the implementation of BPM and related projects, some methods are based on process maturity models, project management methods or software development methods. These differences probably occur because of the different contexts in which these methods are used.
Table 1: Different BPM Related Implementation Methods. No Name Scientific Professional 1 Pronto X 2 Cordys@Work X 3 ARIS House of Business Engineering X X (HOBE) 4 ADEPT (An Agent-Based X Approach to Business Process Management) 5 Interactive, process-oriented X system development (IPSD) 6 Process Innovation Method X X 7 Six Sigma X X 8 Goal-Oriented Organization X X Design (GOOD) 9 Rajafopal's BPMS approach X 10 Strategy Driven Approach X X 11 SCOR (Supply Chain Operations X X Reference) 12 Smart BPM X 13 Pattern based approach X 14 Business Process Maturity X X Model (BPMM) 15 RACI X methodology 16 A Systems Approach to BPM X 17 Bizzdesign's BPM X approach 18 Nine-step approach (Capgemini) X 19 Goal driven BPM X 20 Fitzgerald and Murphy's X implementation Methodology 21 BPM Implementation X methodology 22 BPR methodology X No Name Characteristics 1 Pronto DEMO, speech-acts 2 Cordys@Work Agile software development methodology 3 ARIS House of Business Based on ARIS architecture Engineering (HOBE) 4 ADEPT (An Agent-Based Agent based approach Approach to Business Process Management) 5 Interactive, Business process reengineering process-oriented system development (IPSD) 6 Process Innovation Method Business process reengineering and process improvement 7 Six Sigma Six Sigma, lean manufacturing 8 Goal-Oriented Organization Human interaction management Design (GOOD) 9 Rajafopal's BPMS approach Business process management 10 Strategy Driven Approach CMMI 11 SCOR (Supply Chain Supply chain management Operations Reference) 12 Smart BPM Business process management systems 13 Pattern based approach Business process reengineering 14 Business Process Maturity CMMI, BPR and TQM Model (BPMM) 15 RACI methodology Project management 16 A Systems Approach to BPM BPR and enterprise architecture 17 Bizzdesign's BPM approach Process modeling and BPR 18 Nine-step approach Process maturity based (Capgemini) 19 Goal driven BPM Business process management 20 Fitzgerald and Murphy's Business process reengineering implementation Methodology 21 BPM Implementation Workflow management and BPR methodology 22 BPR methodology Business process reengineering No Name Source 1 Pronto www. …