Implementing a Four-Phase Curriculum Review Model: With This Model You Can Review and Modify a Curriculum in Any Discipline, at Any Level, from Elementary School to College

By LaCursia, Nancy | JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, November-December 2010 | Go to article overview

Implementing a Four-Phase Curriculum Review Model: With This Model You Can Review and Modify a Curriculum in Any Discipline, at Any Level, from Elementary School to College


LaCursia, Nancy, JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance


The words "curriculum review" might send some teachers running for their professional lives, while others welcome the opportunity to explore how students feel about the curriculum and to share ideas with colleagues and others. Curriculum revision can indeed be a positive experience that benefits students, teachers, and the entire department alike.

Students who see a curriculum that offers new learning opportunities (e.g., Yoga, core training, outdoor education) may approach their physical education and health classes in a more positive way. As a result, students may achieve greater success in meeting local, state, and national standards (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009).

Curriculum revision can benefit teachers by increasing their awareness of student needs, current best practices, and initiatives that affect curriculum (e.g., Fit Kids Act, Local School Wellness Policy). Further, a positive curriculum-review process recognizes teachers as experts and provides equal power, shared decision making, and assurance that changes will be based on data and consensus, rather than on individual preferences (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009).

Departments can benefit from a curriculum review as it holds each physical education and health course up to the light of national, state, and department standards. As a result, teachers can better determine what students will know and do after their participation in the program.

This article describes how to implement a simplified process for revising curriculum, the four-phase curriculum review model (CRM). Key elements of the model, explanations of each phase, and how to address challenges to completing the process are discussed. Although this model was used in a large suburban high school physical education and health department, it can be adapted for other grade levels and disciplines.

Approaches to Curriculum Development and Revision

Approaches to curriculum review range from making changes based solely on student needs to purchasing a nationally marketed curriculum (Telljohann, Symons, & Pateman, 2009). Many discipline-specific curriculum approaches (e.g. math, science, computer science, English, special education) focus on what content to include and who should teach it.

Approaches also can be top-down, middle-up, or bottom-up. Top-down administrators determine the curriculum for teachers. In contrast, middle-up administrators provide time and resources for revisions determined by the school and teachers, while bottom-up or "grassroots" administrators believe curriculum should be revised only by those who teach it (McNeil, 1990).

Other approaches can be described as technical or nontechnical. The technical approach uses a systematic method for curricular decisions, while the nontechnical provides for more teacher input (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009). Saylor and Alexander's (1981) model is an example of a systematic approach (goals, design, implementation, evaluation). Models by Carl (design, dissemination, implementation, evaluation) and Mostert (initiation, planning, development, testing, implementation, evaluation) have similar systemic phases (Carl, 2009).

Program-planning models, however, conduct a needs assessment before developing goals and objectives (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009; Taba, 1970). In this way, needs-assessment data can be used to help a department identify curriculum goals and objectives.

The Four-Phase Curriculum Review Model

The four-phase CRM is a systematic approach that involves stakeholders at the "grassroots" level, begins with a needs assessment, and allows teachers the freedom to "jump on and off the curriculum train." Inspired by the simplicity and framework of Saylor and Alexander's (1981) four-stage model, this author renamed the first two phases to create the four-phase CRM, which comprises a needs assessment, philosophy, curriculum product, and implementation/evaluation.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Implementing a Four-Phase Curriculum Review Model: With This Model You Can Review and Modify a Curriculum in Any Discipline, at Any Level, from Elementary School to College
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.