The Importance of Psychological Needs for the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Displaced Children in Schools

By Uguak, Uget Apayo | Journal of Instructional Psychology, December 2010 | Go to article overview

The Importance of Psychological Needs for the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Displaced Children in Schools


Uguak, Uget Apayo, Journal of Instructional Psychology


The study targets children in especially difficult circumstances from 8-14 years; and explores the importance of psychosocial needs for the PTSD and displaced children in schools. Out of 235 participants, descriptive statistics indicated that 63 children are traumatized. Based on ANOVA findings, the result revealed that there is significant effect of war on children from 10-14 years since N = 63; [F.bar] = 3.421; [p.bar] = .006. Psycho Therapy activities are used to identify and treat those maladjusted children under their noses. The main objective of this paper is to recognize and reduce the ill-effects and adverse consequences of trauma among the affected children and integrate them into social institutions to lead a normal life.

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Psychosocial needs have been of pivotal concern to psychologists and educators to improve the mental health and learning situations of the traumatized and displaced child victims. The concepts of displaced and war-affected children refer to children affected by war or those who are socially marginalized and became traumatized.

The main objective of this study is to recognize and reduce the ill-effects and adverse consequences of trauma and displacement among the affected children and eventually enabling them to integrate into the social institutions and lead a normal life. The protection of those children will be ensured through the Promotion of international human rights standards and through the offering of psychosocial needs. This situation may be eventually developed into Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) especially among children who have been victims of displacement. Examples of PTSD have been stated clearly by Thabet, and Vostanis (2000) that children experienced symptoms of PTSD more than adults such

as recurrent fear, lack of emotional stability, poor concentration, avoidance of certain social situations, dropped out from schools, poor academic performance, and truancy are considered to be symptoms for identifying situations of trauma disorders.

The EMDH organization (2000), emphasized that parental separation in most cases, is caused by war conflict, displacement, and environmental phenomena that is, natural disaster such as Tsunami/flood, desertion, earthquake, death, and so on. This in turn, would cause PTSD among the children who are left behind. Besides separation, there are other factors that contribute to PTSD like social factors for instance, Divorce, and Parental Deprivation.

Over the past twenty years, PTSD events have become a global issue. Several studies have confirmed the increase in the rate of children who have suffered from psychological trauma that was caused by war and natural phenomena. Ackerman et al. (1998) also had cited some examples that caused psychological PTSD such as hurricanes, kidnappings, bombings, shootings, sexual and physical abuses. Regarding displacement, it is mainly caused by natural disaster and war conflict (Akhundov, 1999; Mayers, 1995). For example, as a result of displacement some children are also exposed to domestic problems linked to alcohol abuse by their parents, the loss of family members or acute illness and family separation as mentioned earlier by EMDH organization (2000). However, in any displaced and war torn areas, about two or three out of five children in a group, are found victims of PTSD in Wau town.

The state of posttraumatic stress disorder is a well-established fact among children who are the victims of war and natural disasters. Research has shown some evidence of causes in their findings from observational studies regarding those children exposed to war and displacement. These children, in most cases, are difficult to be recognized, identified and understood. As a result, they give the impression of being not affected at all.

War conflicts have been identified also as a major cause in casualties that has led to massive displacement of children.

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