Egypt under Mubarak: After More Than Three Decades of Mubarak Rule, the Lack of Economic Progress and Social Mobility Has Pushed Egyptians to Call for Change
Ratcliffe, Verity, MEED Middle East Economic Digest
Hosni Mubarak's time as Egypt's president is coming to an end. Since his rise to power in 1981, the country has evolved significantly. The Arab world's most populous nation has experienced an intense period of industrialisation and thrown open its doors to foreign direct investment.
The area that has changed very little - and the one that is responsible for hastening the end of Mubarak's presidency - is the structure of government and concentration of power in the executive. Despite several ostensive moves towards a more democratic system, Mubarak has retained a tight grip on the reins of power.
With almost complete control over the country, Mubarak's legacy can be judged by the performance of Egypt over the past three decades. He can claim the credit for the country's successes, but he is also responsible for its failures.
Rising to power
When Mubarak came to power, he faced several major challenges. The republic was less than 30 years old, but it was already tainted with bitter conflicts and strong economic imperatives.
Former president Gamal Abdel Nasser's decision to nationalise the Suez Canal in 1956 triggered the Suez Crisis and a backlash from the West. Closer to home, tensions with Israel reached a critical level, resulting in the Six Day War in 1967. Nasser died three years later and Anwar Sadat was declared president.
During this time, Mubarak began his ascent to power, first as leader of the country's air force academy, and then as the air force's chief of staff. Egypt's conflict with Israel highlighted the important role of the …
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Publication information: Article title: Egypt under Mubarak: After More Than Three Decades of Mubarak Rule, the Lack of Economic Progress and Social Mobility Has Pushed Egyptians to Call for Change. Contributors: Ratcliffe, Verity - Author. Magazine title: MEED Middle East Economic Digest. Volume: 55. Issue: 5 Publication date: February 4, 2011. Page number: 20+. © 1999 MEED Middle East Economic Digest. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2011 Gale Group.
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