Issues in Citing Internet Resources: What Nigerian Authors, Librarians, and Information Seekers Must Abide In

By Anyira, Isaac Echezonam; Nwabueze, Anthonia | Library Philosophy and Practice, March 2011 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Issues in Citing Internet Resources: What Nigerian Authors, Librarians, and Information Seekers Must Abide In

Anyira, Isaac Echezonam, Nwabueze, Anthonia, Library Philosophy and Practice

1.1 Introduction.

The internet established in 1969 by the United States Department of Defense, as ARPANet (which stands for Advance Research project Agency Network), is a worldwide network that connects hundred of thousands of other smaller networks. It links educational, commercial and non-profit organizations, the military, as well as individuals (Williams & Sawyer, 2007).

Internet use in Nigeria started in 1991 when a few pioneering groups began to offer limited e-mail services (Eshekels Associates, 2001). In July 1995, the regional information network for Africa (RINAF) commenced internet services at the Computer Science Department of Yaba College of technology, and through the Nigerian postal service (NIPOST), in a collaborative effort with Rose Clayton Nigeria Limited (Adomi, 2005).

The world wide web (WWW) became available in Nigeria in 1996, while full internet services became available in 1998, and number of NCC (Nigerian Communications Commission) licensed Internet service Providers rose to over 150 by 2001 (Adomi, 2005).

With an estimated total population of over 140 million people (National Population Commission, 2006), Nigeria is the most populated black nation in the world, with internet hosts as low as 1,094 (Adomi, 2005).

In late 2003, Nigeria had a total of 750,000 internet users and 60 users per 10,000 inhabitants representing 0.5 percent of the population (International Telecommunications Union, 2004). Nigeria had a total of 853,000 PC's and 0.71 pc's per 100 inhabitants as at 2003 (ITU, 2004).

Internet use in Nigeria has for long been linked to research. This is because the adoption of the internet in Nigeria has leveraged access to information and communication by providing un-reserved access to e-mail messages, web boards, online services, e-publication and so on. However, internet use came with it the problem of citation. This is because unlike the print sources which the average Nigerian researcher is aware of, internet resources are quite peculiar and grey.

This issue must be addressed at this point in time because Krause (2007) posited that citation is one of the key elements that distinguish academic research writing from other kinds of writings. Moreover, Researchers are eagerly interested in knowing where the writer found his/her evidence, so that they can retrieve that evidence and read it themselves.

Besides, academic writers are also very interested in giving credit to other writers' ideas. Krause (2007) pointed out that quoting and paraphrasing in research do not give proper credit to another writer's knowledge or ideas. The goal of citation therefore, is to explain to the readers or information users where the writer found the evidence that he/she used to support his/her point. This must not be taken for granted.

2.1 Internet Resources

There are diverse resources on the internet. They include:

2.1.1 Electronic Books (e-books)

Electronic books or e-books are digital texts, which are issued as individual works and designed to be accessed by using special software for text navigation and ease of reading. E-books are digital versions of a traditional printed book designed to be read in a personal computer or an e-book reader. The e-book reader is a software application designed for use in a standard-sized computer or a book-sized computer used solely as a reading device. There are large array of electronic books on the internet. Some are designed for reference purposes while others are prepared to be read like textbooks.

2.1.2 Electronic Journals (e-journals)

Electronic journals are scholarly journals or intellectually magazines that can be accessed via the World Wide Web. E-journals are fashioned to be like the print journal. E-journal articles usually contain metadata that can be entered into specialized databases ass well as the databases and search engines for the academic and discipline concerned.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Issues in Citing Internet Resources: What Nigerian Authors, Librarians, and Information Seekers Must Abide In


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?