Expectancy Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and Cataloguing Departments

By Ugah, Akobundu D.; Arua, Uche | Library Philosophy and Practice, April 2011 | Go to article overview

Expectancy Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and Cataloguing Departments


Ugah, Akobundu D., Arua, Uche, Library Philosophy and Practice


Introduction

This study of motivation and behaviour is the search to the perplexing question about the nature of Man. The problem of motivating other people is as old as man himself at least as old as that point in time when man found he could only accomplish certain tasks by combining his efforts with those of other individuals. The problem was further complicated when large number of people was needed to accomplish a given task. The situation then arose of providing direction that is, someone telling others what to do and overseeing their efforts. Then the matter of how to motivate other people became an issue.

A library is an Organization having the purpose of providing professional service to its users. All the library members of staff are the means by which these services will be provided. How well this service will be rendered will depend upon how well the various activities are carried out by staff of the library. How adequately these staff will perform will depend upon how well they have been motivated.

Expectancy Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy

An American psychologist named Edward C. Tolman formulated Expectancy theory in the 1930s. This theory suggests that human behavior will be motivated by the conscious expectation more than response to stimuli. The expectation will be that the action in prospect will lead to desired goal or outcome hence the name "Expectancy Theory".

If an individual worker for instance, needed more money to meet his needs, which according to Maslow are physiological, safety and security, social, esteem and self-actualization" and he is assured that if he works harder, he will receive more money to meet his needs. Then he/she can put in necessary time and effort to win the desired reward. Expectancy theory can also be used to explain another phenomenon. That is, an individual worker seems to adjust his own motivational levels to those of his/her colleagues and his acceptance by the group within and knows that exceptional output on a unilateral basis will anger his colleagues and disrupt the group norm of production.

But if the individual feels frustrated and unhappy, he will not make the maximum contribution to either the common task or harmonious relationship in the group, which will affects job performances as well as individual needs. That means, the group will fail in its task which infact intensify the disintegrative tendencies in the group and diminish the satisfaction of individual needs.

Adair (1996) suggested three areas of overlapping needs which are present in any working group. Specifically, he mentioned: (a) the need to accomplish the common task; (b) the needs of the group for unity; (c) and needs individual bring with them by virtue of being human beings.

The cycles are dynamic in the sense that each of them possesses its own motivational forces in a magnetic field, which it is the immediate work environment. These fields interact positively or negatively. So if there is a positive change in any one of them, the areas of needs will affect each other.

In the concern of general theory of the three interlaced circle, it can be seen how the meeting of individual needs affects the other areas.

What are these individual needs? To answer this question, one needs to study Maslow's hierarchy of need, which has been briefly discussed in this paper.

Cataloguing Departments

This is where library materials are catalogued, and classified (Olanlokun and Salisu 1993). It is in this department that other routine processing of materials are done before they are made available for public use. In a typical cataloguing department, three types of professional duties and host of other routine activities are carried out. These professional duties include descriptive cataloguing, subject cataloguing i.e. assigning subject headings and classification which also include assigning class mark.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Expectancy Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and Cataloguing Departments
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.