Serving California's Human Trafficking Victims and Refugees

By Wagner, John | Policy & Practice, December 2010 | Go to article overview

Serving California's Human Trafficking Victims and Refugees


Wagner, John, Policy & Practice


Since 1975, California has received more than 690,000 refugee arrivals, the largest number in the United States. In March 2010, we reached a significant milestone by marking the 30th anniversary of the Refugee Act of 1980, which established the Refugee Resettlement Program, or RRP, administered throughout the country at the federal level by the Office of Refugee Resettlement. The intent of the RRP is to facilitate the effective resettlement of refugees in the United States by providing them with assistance to adjust to American society and to obtain skills and jobs that lead to self-sufficiency.

The populations eligible for RRP benefits and services include refugees, asylees, Cuban and Haitian entrants, federally certified human trafficking victims, certain Amerasians (from Vietnam), Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrants, and Cuban medical professionals. In this article, when we use the term "refugees," we are referring collectively to all of the above populations.

Human Trafficking Victims

Human trafficking is a global problem and a hidden crime. Many victims suffer tremendously and display mistrust of government coupled with fear of their traffickers and their desperate circumstances. This prevents them from coming forward to report crimes against them. In the 1990s, the federal government's recognition of trafficking as a growing problem resulted in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act was the first comprehensive federal law aimed at both criminal and social issues related to trafficking and established human trafficking as a federal crime. TVPA also created two visa categories: the T Visa (for victims of human trafficking) and the U Visa (for victims of serious crimes). The visas allow undocumented victims to remain in the United States until their cases are adjudicated. The federal law also provides federally funded benefits and services to assist certified victims of human trafficking. These federally funded benefits and services are equivalent to those provided to refugees, and include cash assistance and social and employment services.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

California's Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts

In September 2005, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed California's first of many anti-trafficking bills into law. Among them were Senate Bill (SB) 180 and Assembly Bill (AB) 22, which made trafficking a state crime and provided for law enforcement training to successfully detect, investigate and prosecute trafficking crimes. These two pieces of legislation also established the California Alliance to Combat Trafficking and Slavery Task Force, which studied the problem of human trafficking in California and developed strategies for combating the crime. I am proud to say the California Department of Social Services was a lead participant in the task force and played a key role in developing its findings and recommendations.

The CA ACTS Task Force was charged with issuing a report to the legislature, attorney general and the governor containing recommendations on how to combat trafficking in California. Its report, Human Trafficking in California, was issued on Dec. 4, 2007, and provided a blueprint for training, public awareness measures and special services needed to assist in the battle against human trafficking. The report can be viewed at: www.ohs.ca.gov/pdf/Human_Trafficking_in_CA-Final_Report-2007.pdf.

Based on the Task Force's report and other research, state officials and trafficking advocates recognized the need for assistance to human trafficking victims who were awaiting federal certification. Beginning in 2005, in addition to SB 180 and AB 22, California passed several other laws, including those that expanded the criminal acts by traffickers that could be prosecuted (i.e., extortion, siphoning of future wages) and increased penalties, as well as laws that mandated restitution to victims (including the allowance of civil litigation). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Serving California's Human Trafficking Victims and Refugees
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.