Is Religious Culture a Factor in Negotiation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Iran, Taiwan and the United States

By Farazmand, Farideh A.; Tu, Yu-Te et al. | Journal of International Business Research, January 2011 | Go to article overview

Is Religious Culture a Factor in Negotiation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Iran, Taiwan and the United States


Farazmand, Farideh A., Tu, Yu-Te, Daneefard, Hasan, Journal of International Business Research


INTRODUCTION

Globalization and economic openness have contributed to increased international engagement of countries in negotiations in the 21st century. According to Taiwan's Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), that country's major national trading partners include the United States and Iran. In 2008, Taiwan traded with the U.S. $61.8 billion worth of goods and services (representing about 11.6 percent, ranking the U.S. as Taiwan's third largest trading partner) with the United States; and Taiwan's trade with Iran total U.S. $6 billion (representing about 1 percent, and ranking Iran as the 20th largest trading partner.

The relationship between Iran and the United States has been tense since the 1980s (Sadjadpour, 2008; ustreas.gov, 2009). Following breaking the diplomatic relationship with Iran in 1980 the U.S. government imposed a trade embargo on Iran in 1987 (Sadjadpour, 2008; treas.gov, 2009; News Journal, 2009). This trade embargo has been continued for the subsequent years and the political relationship has not been normal (Sadjadpour, 2008).

However, U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq and its military and security problems in those countries, neighboring to Iran laid the ground for low level talks between the two countries since 2001 (News Journal, 2009; The Independent, 2009). More recently, President Obama has acknowledged U.S. willingness for having dialogue with Iran (The Independent, 2009). As Sadjadpour (2008) states it, "The relevant question is not whether to talk to Iran but how." Understanding the significant role of Islamic culture (Haynes, 2007) on negotiation styles could ease the obstacles in talking to the Iranians.

Gulbro and Herbig (1994) indicated that different cultures can generate distinct negotiation styles. This paper examines negotiation styles of people from three distinct cultures, those of Iran, Taiwan and the United States--in terms of the impact on these cultures by the dominant religious traditions in each--Islam, Buddhism and Christianity respectively. Knowledge about the impact of culture and religion on negotiation styles is an advantage for anyone involved in negotiations (Chang, 2003).

Cultural negotiation literature is limited, particularly with respect to religious factors in general and to the effect of these factors on Iranian, Taiwanese and U.S. negotiation styles. The research aims to investigate the role of religious culture as a factor in shaping negotiation style of people with different religious beliefs. The negotiation styles of Muslim Iranians, Buddhist Taiwanese and Christian Americans will be examined and compared.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Culture is commonly defined as "a set of shared values and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, moral and other group behavior "(Faure and Sjostedt, 1993; Craig and Douglas, 2006; Adapa, 2008). Culture also refers to individual cultures revealed through the food, songs, and stories that are exchanged with people outside of that region (Parra, 2001). One further definition of culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that a group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and therefore to be taught to new members as the appropriate ways to perceive, think, and feel with relation to those problems (Schein, 1997). Simintiras and Thomas (1998) defined culture as "accepted values and norms that influence the way in which people think, feel, and behave." Barbash and Taylor (1997) indicated that culture includes religion, gender, language, class, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Since sub-cultures, cultures and super-cultures merge and evolve, while being less bounded than before; the idea of culture is more porous and varied than before (Barbash and Taylor, 1997). Lee and Trim (2008) indicated that a shared organizational culture can help with the management of an international partnership arrangement, and senior managers will need to possess knowledge of the national cultural value traits of the people concerned.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Is Religious Culture a Factor in Negotiation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Iran, Taiwan and the United States
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.