From the Individual to the System: Expanding the Range of Literary Interpretation

By Hargrove, David S. | Style, Summer 2011 | Go to article overview

From the Individual to the System: Expanding the Range of Literary Interpretation


Hargrove, David S., Style


Investigation of the ways in which "real" human minds and fictional minds are similar and different is an important undertaking for literary critics, psychologists and neuroscientists, linguists, and philosophers. Thankfully, this investigation has begun in earnest and in the spirit of collaboration. Clearly no single effort is likely to unite the diversity of knowledge and method necessary for a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that connect brain function, and perhaps structure, psychological factors, and the workings of narrative. Information provided by single-minded research and the rational processes of construction and evaluation reach far beyond the boundaries of a single disciplinary pursuit.

Palmer's concepts of "fictional minds" and "social minds" provide significant pathways to understand the psychosocial function of reading, particularly of reading fiction. The essential assertion of cognitive theory underlying other theoretical frameworks from which to visit literature demands further pursuit of the meaning and function of cognition, particularly in the process of reading, and perhaps writing, literature. As this pursuit ensues, freedom from disciplinary limitations expands the possibilities for understanding. The structural components and processes of thinking require broader ranges of investigation than can be contained in a single set of theories and methods.

The psychological contribution to literary studies essentially has been dominated by psychoanalytic theory. Freud's own delving into literature as either explanatory of his theory or examples of the sources of the theory established a strong precedent for literary criticism based on psychological principles. Discussion of the drives and motives of characters, and sometimes authors, provides rich interpretation of the thinking and behavior of characters that infuse plots with meaning. As Holland points out, there are three people involved in the process of psychoanalytic literary criticism: the author, the audience, anda character in the text.

In the construction of the "social mind," Palmer broadens the "character" in the novel to the cast of characters, which includes both the individuals and the relationships that are contained in the narrative. By highlighting both internal and external positions with regard to the narrative, he includes the reader and asserts the importance of the relationship between the cognitive processes of the reader and those that characterize the narrative. The range of interpretation is expanded to include a system of relationships that may be involved in the process of understanding and interpretating narrative.

This shift of focus broadens the psychological interpretation of literature beyond that which may be addressed by psychoanalytic theory. Palmer's recognition of the use of the "hard" neurological sciences by literary critics and his call for greater attention to the "soft" sciences, in which he includes social psychology, invites recognition of the system of relationships that is the object of study.

Knapp and Womack bring the principles of family psychotherapy, a relatively recent development in the history of psychological approaches to treatment of behavioral and emotional maladies, to the study of literature. This volume features 13 alternative, broader interpretations of specific literature, successfully, in my view, establishing systems theories as promising perspectives for literary study. Knapp and Womack demonstrated the breadth of systems theories in communications studies, psychiatry, and psychology.

Shiff narrowed the scope from the range of systems theories to one specific, natural systems theory in her treatment of the work of Philip Roth: Bowen Family Systems Theory. Pointing out that psychoanalytic theory is essentially individual in its orientation and is highly subjective, she offered Bowen theory as a more objective alternative, visualizing the individual human organism as a part of its environment, particularly the relationship systems of which it is a part. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

From the Individual to the System: Expanding the Range of Literary Interpretation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.