Prospective EFL Teachers' Perceptions of ICT Integration: A Study of Distance Higher Education in Turkey

By Hismanoglu, Murat | Educational Technology & Society, January 2012 | Go to article overview

Prospective EFL Teachers' Perceptions of ICT Integration: A Study of Distance Higher Education in Turkey


Hismanoglu, Murat, Educational Technology & Society


Introduction

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been promoted as a platform for providing learners with opportunities in any field (King, 2002; Rovai, 2002) and many significant studies have been conducted on the integration of ICT into classroom teaching to complement and modify the pedagogical practice (Hennessy et al., 2005). Due to ICT related development in the field of education, countries regard ICT as a potential tool for change and innovation in education and so make investments in ICT integration (Eurydice, 2001; Papanastasiou and Angeli, 2008). For instance, Turkey spent 400 dollars per person and allocated eleven point seven percent (11.7 %) of its budget to ICT. This rate is lower than the rates of Europe and Central Asia, since they allocate twenty two percent (22 %) of their budget to ICT implementation, yet it is still higher than the rates in developing countries (World Bank, 2007). Therefore, the Ministry of Education in Turkey attempted to set up computer laboratories and provide Internet connection in schools. To illustrate, the rate of schools with Internet connection increased from forty percent (40 %) (World Bank, 2007) to sixty-eight percent (68 %) (SPO, 2008) and it is projected that this rate will have increased to ninety-six percent (96%) by 2011 (SPO, 2006).

Although investments in ICT for educational innovations and improvements purposes have been continuing, the needs of teachers who will employ it in the classroom as a staple part of the curriculum is disregarded (Niederhauser and Stoddart, 2001; Vacc and Bright, 1999). ICT does not have an educational value in itself, but it becomes precious when teachers use it in the learning and teaching process. As Shakeshaft (1999, p. 4) notes, 'just because ICT is present does not mean that students are using it'. The impact of ICT is strongest when used in a particular content area and further supported by use across the curriculum (Ward and Parr, 2010). Since teachers are the key figures to utilize ICT in educational settings productively and to help integrate ICT into the curriculum, they need support and training to disseminate ICT integration into their classrooms.

Roblyer (2002) found that many pre-service teachers are still entering universities with little knowledge of computers and appropriate skills as well as lacking positive attitudes toward ICT use in the classroom. Moreover, Gunter (2001) states that many higher education institutions are still failing to prepare pre- service teachers for positive technological experiences. Hence, it is unlikely that teachers will be able to transfer their ICT skills to their students and encourage them to implement ICT when they themselves have negative perceptions toward ICT deployment (Yildirim, 2000).

As highlighted by a variety of substantial studies, however, not all teachers have been willing to introduce ICT into their language classrooms. In the last decade, a steady stream of work has variously addressed this issue (e.g., Mumtaz, 2000; Williams et al., 2000; Galanouli and McNair, 2001; Baylor and Ritchie, 2002). Studies have also shown that, for the younger generation of teachers, the basis of this unwillingness is sometimes to be found in the training on the use of ICT provided in the teaching and learning process (e.g., Watson, 1997; Murphy and Greenwood, 1998; Strudler & Wetzel, 1999).

As Rogers (1995) postulates in his theory of Diffusion of Innovation, technology adopters' perceptions are indispensible to the innovation-decision process. He suggests that studies should focus on users' attitudes toward ICT integration in the early stages of technology implementation. Perceptions (or beliefs or intentions) are being considered the cognitive components of attitudes and the literature shows that pre-service teachers' perceptions influence intentions which in turn influence behaviour (Ma et al., 2005; Dillon and Gayford, 1997). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Prospective EFL Teachers' Perceptions of ICT Integration: A Study of Distance Higher Education in Turkey
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.