Remembering Memories about Students with Disabilities

By Miller, Maury; Gresham, Pamela et al. | Journal of Instructional Psychology, September-December 2011 | Go to article overview

Remembering Memories about Students with Disabilities


Miller, Maury, Gresham, Pamela, Fouts, Bonnia, Journal of Instructional Psychology


Preservice general education classroom teachers in an inclusion course were asked to describe their own earliest memories of students with disabilities in school. Substantial literature links early memories to subsequent thoughts and attitudes. Subjects also completed the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities attitude scale, and memories were studied for differences between those who scored higher and lower on this attitude scale. Differences are reported in the themes of initial reactions to the student with a disability, types of assistance needed by that student, types of contact they had with that student, explanation of the disability provided, and specific characteristics subjects described. Provisions for using these memories in the inclusion course are provided.

Early memories are recognized for their potential of having life-long impacts on the ones remembering them. It is likely, then, that effects of early memories about special education students can be seen as the rememberer gets older. In fact, that effect may well have continuing influence on prospective teachers and their current feelings about students with disabilities. This can be shown in prospective teachers' attitudes toward including students with disabilities in their own classrooms in the future.

Although many universities now include a course preparing future general education teachers for the students with disabilities who will be included in their classrooms, there has been surprisingly little investigation of those courses. These courses do serve essential purposes in future teachers' preparation (Martinez, 2003). However, the evidence for their effect is scant. There are mixed views on how even to design the courses (Garriott, Miller, & Snyder, 2003). Courses must be ap propriately designed to prepare new teachers for what, to them, may be roles previously not thought of (Martinez, 2003; Van Laarhaven, Munk, Bosma, & Rouse, 2007). The research one does find for these courses usually focuses on attitudes and attitude change (Richards & Clough, 2004). It is presumed that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion will be more receptive to having these students in their classrooms (Sharma, Forlin, & Loreman, 2008). The limited research which has been conducted has shown these students' initial attitudes to be negative (Garriott, Miller, & Snyder). Although some studies have shown such courses to have positive effects on attitude (Shade & Stewart, 2001), other studies have not shown that effect (Martinez), or, even, results have been decreases in attitude (Van Laarhaven, Munk, Bosma, & Rouse, 2007).

There has been no investigation of where these prospective teachers' attitudes come from. Although they may be based on the individuals' own experiences, that is not known, for certain. A way to inquire about the sources of their attitudes could be to ask these prospective teachers to search their own memories about special education students-- students with disabilities--in their own school experiences.

Early memories, or early recollections, and their lingering effects have long been studied. Adler (1931) believed that early recollections reflected the inner-consistency that connects all aspects of behavior (Elliott, Amerikaner,& Swank, 1987; Kasler, & Nevo, 2005). Adler (1980, 74) noted: "Events remembered from childhood must be very near to the main interest of the individual; and if we know his [sic] main interest, we know his goal and his style of life." He pointed out that there could be effects even on decisions about vocation. Further, studies have revealed relationships between early recollections and a variety of personality characteristics (Barrett, 1983). That is, early memories can be predictors of later interpersonal behavior.

Early memories which can be collected are just that--memories as the rememberer relates them. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Remembering Memories about Students with Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.