Women's Health beyond Reproduction: Meeting the Challenges

By Bustreo, Flavia; Knaul, Felicia Marie et al. | Bulletin of the World Health Organization, July 2012 | Go to article overview

Women's Health beyond Reproduction: Meeting the Challenges


Bustreo, Flavia, Knaul, Felicia Marie, Bhadelia, Afsan, Beard, John, de Carvalhoa, Islene Araujo, Bulletin of the World Health Organization


Women's health and noncommunicable diseases are both generating increasing interest within the international community. Over the past two years major action platforms have been launched in these areas, including the United Nations' Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health and the Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. However, the intersection and relationships between the two areas have not been adequately explored and, as a result, the health needs of women beyond reproduction remain largely unaddressed.

Strong historical ties between the concept of women's health and that of reproductive health have led to a concentration of international attention and resources on maternal health and human immunodeficiency virus infection, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Fruitful results have been reaped, yet women's health is not limited to women's reproductive capacity; it extends throughout the life-cycle and encompasses emerging priorities in chronic and noncommunicable disease control. A view in which progress in maternal health is measured merely in terms of survival of childbirth is outmoded.

It is time for priorities in women's health are set in accordance with the unfolding demographic and epidemiologic transition and with breakthroughs in public health and medicine. Chronic and noncommunicable diseases exemplify the new and often ignored challenges that are emerging in women's health. Deaths from breast and cervical cancer have outstripped maternal deaths (273 500 in 2011), which have declined substantially over the past three decades. (1,2) Over the same period, breast cancer incidence and mortality have

increased at annual rates of 3.1% and 1.8%, respectively. (2) Furthermore, trends in breast and cervical cancer illustrate the geographical polarization and protracted nature of the epidemiological transition and the overlapping and complex challenges facing health systems in the field of women's health. (3,4) In 2010, breast cancer killed 269 000 women in low- and middle-income countries and cervical cancer killed 247000. (5) At the same time, cervical cancer incidence and mortality have become increasingly concentrated in low- and middle-income countries and hence in women who are poor. (6) The same is true of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders and other health conditions.

Women's health in low- and middle-income countries is further complicated by the gender-specific nature of some demographic changes. Although women live longer than men, it is conventionally believed that they experience poorer health. Policies and programmes must therefore address women's health holistically and from a life-course perspective that focuses on providing women with a continuum of care. A growing evidence base, mainly from high-income countries, on the diseases and disabilities affecting women beyond reproduction supports this approach.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Women's Health beyond Reproduction: Meeting the Challenges
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.