Just Settlement: The Return of Eastern Slavonia to Croatia

By Zuzul, Miomir | Harvard International Review, Spring 1998 | Go to article overview

Just Settlement: The Return of Eastern Slavonia to Croatia


Zuzul, Miomir, Harvard International Review


MIOMIR ZUZUL is Croatian Ambassador to the United States.

In January of 1998, the area known as Eastern Slavonia was restored to full Croatian authority after an arduous two-year process. The successful conclusion to the peaceful reintegration of Eastern Slavonia represents a major achievement for Croatia, US diplomacy, and the UN member states who contributed troops to the reintegration efforts. Today, the process of reintegration of Eastern Slavonia is, in fact, complete. Automobiles

carry Croatian license plates, shop owners accept the Croatian kuna, retirees receive Croatian pensions, doctors treat the sick under the Croatian health system, and Croatian and local Serb policemen maintain order and enforce Croatian law. The return of refugees both to and from Eastern Slavonia has begun. For Croatia, the end of the UN mandate in Eastern Slavonia represents an important milestone on the road to an important destination: reintegration into Western economic, political and security institutions, namely the European Union (EU) and NATO. For the international community, the successful end to the mandate represents the most successful UN mission in history. The model that was employed in Eastern Slavonia may serve as an example to future peace-keeping operations throughout the world.

To understand the obstacles confronted by the UN mission in Croatia as well as the challenges that lie ahead, it is necessary to briefly examine the historical background of two previous failed UN missions in Croatia--the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO). In such a context, the success of the United Nations Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) can be understood and employed as a model elsewhere in the world.

Historical Background

Croatia declared independence from the former Yugoslavia on June 25, 1991, in an effort to promote democratic and market reforms and to move closer to membership in European institutions. Serbia, however, chose to expand its borders by annexing parts of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. With the aid of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), Serbia launched a massive attack on Croatia. In August 1991, the Croatian town of Vukovar, with more than 45,000 inhabitants, was shelled by Yugoslav troops and Serb paramilitary forces. Vukovar resisted a three-month siege from land, air, and the Danube River--a siege that took the lives of thousands and reduced the town to rubble. This pattern of aggression was repeated across Croatia, resulting in the deaths of more than 10,000 people and forcing hundreds of thousands from their homes. The war against Croatia reached its peak with the shelling of the defenseless historic city of Dubrovnik, an attack which flouted international legal and moral norms.

The aggression against Croatia lasted nearly six months before an effective cease-fire was achieved and the United Nations agreed to deploy peace-keeping troops within the framework of the Vance Plan. Cyrus Vance, the UN Secretary-General's special envoy for peace negotiations, conducted several grueling rounds of shuttle diplomacy to forge this agreement which would have brought peace to Croatia. The mechanisms for negotiating the peaceful reintegration of the occupied areas into Croatia's constitutional and legal system were based on the principles established at the international peace conference in The Hague and the guiding principle that any agreement must ensure respect for Croatia's independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity. The Croatian Constitution and constitutional law offered broad guarantees of ethnic and minority rights to Serbs, including local self-government and autonomy in areas where they constituted a majority. The Vance Plan enabled the United Nations to deploy its "blue helmets" to the areas occupied by rebel Serbs and the Yugoslav military. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Just Settlement: The Return of Eastern Slavonia to Croatia
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.