Canadian-American Agricultural Trade Relations: A Brief History

By Marchildon, Gregory P. | American Review of Canadian Studies, Autumn 1998 | Go to article overview

Canadian-American Agricultural Trade Relations: A Brief History


Marchildon, Gregory P., American Review of Canadian Studies


Introduction

Although in recent years some specialized work has been done on the agricultural trade relationship between Canada and the United States, relatively little historical work has been devoted to this subject. This is true despite a voluminous literature--most of which, admittedly, has been written from a Canadian point-of-view--on the history of Canadian-American relations generally. But, here again, the subject of agricultural trade rarely appears, and then usually only to illustrate a more general problem or conflict. There are a number of likely reasons for this, most prominently the fact that agricultural trade has been on a long-term decline relative to other forms of commodity trade within the world's largest bilateral trading and investment relationship; that is, Canada-U.S. trade has been dominated by manufactured goods for most of the postwar era, leaving agriculture a negligible position. Nonetheless, understanding the history of Canadian-American agricultural trade relations remains important for a number of reasons. First, economic disputes between the two countries have shaped the very nature of the bilateral relationship and, until the 1960s, agricultural trade, along with the fisheries, consistently took top prize as the subject matter of these disputes. Since the early 1960s, disputes over automobiles (rules of origin), culture (Canadian content regulations), and softwood lumber have joined, but not supplanted, these sectoral problem areas, as the recent disputes over salmon and wheat testify.

Second, as Table 1 illustrates, bilateral agricultural exports have been more important than the percentage of total trade between the two countries would appear to indicate. An $18 billion annual trade in agricultural commodities (1996) is sizeable by almost any absolute measure, and the historical importance of this trade was proportionately much greater. During the postwar era, the United States has become Canada's main agricultural trading partner, in both exports and imports, while Canada has remained one of the United States' main partners--since the 1970s, the second largest exporter (after the European Community)to the U.S., and among the top four importers of American agricultural goods. Moreover, because of the very regional nature of this trade, it has had, and continues to have, a disproportionate impact on the lives of Canadians and Americans in regions of both countries including the fruit and vegetable growers of California, the cattle ranchers of Alberta, and the durum wheat growers of Saskatchewan, to cite only a few examples (Cohn 1990, 13-14).

[Part 1 of 2]

Table 1: Agricultural Exports as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Trade in
the United States and Canada, 1992-1996 (million of dollars)

CANADA                                       1992      1993      1994


1. Agricultural Exports to the U.S. (1)    6,942     7,367     8,104
2. Total Exports to the U.S.             123,377   149,006   180,837
3. % of Ag. Exports to Total Exports        5.63%     4.94%     4.48%
4. Agricultural Exports to the World      30,679    32,789    37,749
5. Total Exports to the World            163,467   190,383   227,892
6. % of Ag. Exports to Total Exports       18.77%    17.22%    16.56%

UNITED STATES
7. Agricultural Exports to Canada (2)      5,980     6,417     7,155
8. Total Exports to Canada               110,379   130,714   156,342
9. % of Ag. Exports to Total Exports        5.42%     4.91%     4.58%
10. Agricultural Exports to the World     42,238    41,938    44,936
11. Total Exports to the World           448,164   465,091   512,626
12. % of Ag. Exports to Total Exports       9.42%     9.02%     8.77%

[Part 2 of 2]

Table 1: Agricultural Exports as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Trade in
the United States and Canada, 1992-1996 (million of dollars)

CANADA                                       1995      1996


1. Agricultural Exports to the U. 

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Canadian-American Agricultural Trade Relations: A Brief History
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.